Psychology, Week 6 Notes
Psychology, Week 6 Notes PSYC 2010 - 001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelli Daniels on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Jennifer Daniels in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction into Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Psychology | Week 6 Monday, September 19, 2016 What is learning? A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience. o We don’t have to be present. We can see it on television, hear about it, etc. Behaviorism: theory of learning that focuses only on observable behaviors, not mental activity. Associative: an association is made between two events. Conditioning: the process of learning associations. How do we learn? We learn by association. Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence. 2000 years ago, Aristotle suggested this law of association. Then 200 years ago Locke and Hume reiterated this law. Associative Learning: learning to associate one stimulus with another. Classical conditioning o How it was first operationalized? Pavlov’s dogs. o Anytime you hear “conditioned”, replace with “learned” o Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): a stimulus that unconditionally – naturally and automatically – triggers a response without prior learning. Ex. Dog food in Pavlov’s experiment. o Unconditioned Response (UCR): unlearned, naturally occurring response to the UCS. Ex. Salivation in Pavlov’s experiment. o Conditioned Stimulus (CS): an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response. Ex. Bell in Pavlov’s experiment. o Conditioned Response (CR): the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus. Ex. Salivation in Pavlov’s experiment, that came with ringing of bell. o Acquisition: the initial learning of the stimulus- response link. Neutral stimulus should come about 0.5 seconds before the UCS. o Salience: does the CS “stand out”? Ex. Soft Russian Ballad vs. Bell o Intensity: usually, the more intense a UCS, the more readily conditioning takes place. o Frequency: the more often the UCS and CS are paired together, the more likely conditioning is to take place. If bells were only occasionally accompanied by feeding, Pavlov’s dogs would have been less likely to be conditioned. o The time between the UCS and CS pairing is important. Contiguity: connectedness in time and space, needs to occur close together. Contingency: predictability of the occurrence of one stimulus from the presence of another. 2 o Generalization: a new stimulus that is similar to the original CS is likely to elicit a response that is similar to the CR. Ex. If tone of bell changed, the dogs would still respond. Higher order conditioning o Discrimination: the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not to others. Ex. When babies are little, they go in for shots every few months. The doctor comes in and checks baby, leaves, and nurse enters to give shot. The nurse begins to elicit fear and crying. They begin to generalize the nurses and discriminate the doctors. o Extinction: the weakening of the CR in the absence of the UCS. Ex. The nurse begins to come in when the baby gets older, and instead of shots, gives lollipops. Fear of nurse extinguishes. o Spontaneous Recovery: a CR can recur after a time delay without further conditioning. Ex. Baby gets sick and has to get another shot from nurse. o Watson and Rayner: Little Albert study Wednesday, September 21, 2016 Operative Conditioning Type of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior’s occurrence Voluntary Behavior o Ex. $100 to come to class Edward Thorndike o Cats in puzzle boxes 3 Law of Effect: over time, behaviors that are rewarded are strengthened. Behaviors that have negative consequences are weakened. o Acquisition: occurs because a certain behavior was reinforced o Extinction: person will no longer perform behavior if not reinforced o Generalization: behavior can generalize if wider and wider range of behaviors are reinforced Ex. table manners Skinner box (similar to cats) o Respond to positive reinforcement o Reinforcement: the process by which a stimulus or an event strengthens or increases the probability of a behavior or an event that it follows Positive Reinforcement (ex. $100 coming to class, getting A on exam): add a desirable stimulus Negative Reinforcement (ex. Advil): taking something negative away to increase behavior; removing an aversive stimulus Primary reinforce: an innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink Conditioned reinforcer: a learned reinforce that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforcer. Friday, September 23, 2016 Ratio Schedules Fixed-ratio schedule: reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. th o E.g. piecework pay (after every 10 widget, you get a dollar) Variable-ratio schedule: reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. 4 o E.g. behaviors like gambling, fishing (you know at some point, you are likely to win, even if it takes a while) Interval Schedules Fixed-interval schedule: reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. o E.g. preparing for an exam only when the exam draws close Variable-interval schedule: reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals, which produces slow, steady responses o E.g. pop quiz Schedules of Reinforcement th Fixed-ratio schedule: ex. rewarded every 10 times Variable-ratio schedule: ex. rewarded, on average, every 10 time Fixed-interval schedule: ex. rewarded every 10 minutes Variable-interval schedule: ex. rewarded, on average, every 10 minutes Punishment Punishment: an aversive event that decreases the likelihood a behavior will occur Positive: doing something to person to try and get them to diminish behavior (ex. spanking, parking ticket) Negative: taking something pleasurable away from the person to try and get them to decrease the behavior (ex. taking keys if curfew is broken) Advantages: aversive behavior reduced for a short time; begin to correlate punishment with bad action; introduces consequences; creates power differential (gives parents power) Disadvantages: associate punishment with punisher (instead of learning consequences); might learn that 5 they need to learn how to get away with it; over punishment may lose effectiveness Intrinsic motivation: the desire to perform a behavior for its own sake Extrinsic motivation: the desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments o Ex. kids get paid for grades; parents have shifted motivation from hard working, to simply working for a reward Aversive conditioning: avoiding a particular behavior or setting as a consequence of punishment in association with the given behavior or setting. o Ex. getting food poisoning from a restaurant; food poisoning associated with setting Premack principle: a more desirable activity serves as a reinforcement for a less desirable one o Ex. you have to eat all of your vegetables before you have dessert Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive. o Ex. can teach a mouse to press a level for food, but can’t teach a mouse to clap its paws. What are the main differences between classical and operant conditioning? Operant conditioning is related to consequence, while classical conditioning is related to the pairing of the unconditioned stimulus to a conditioned stimulus What are the similarities between classical and operant conditioning? The basic premise of learning, the end goal of shaping and changing behavior. We can have a drastic influence on how an animal/human responds based on how we respond. Cognitive processing and classical conditioning 6 o Expectancy: awareness of how likely it is that the unconditioned stimulus will occur 7