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PY 101: 9.16.16 - 9.23.16 Lecture Notes

by: Peyton Paul

PY 101: 9.16.16 - 9.23.16 Lecture Notes PY 101

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > PY 101 > PY 101 9 16 16 9 23 16 Lecture Notes
Peyton Paul
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About this Document

These notes include everything from all the lectures given & videos watched in class during the week of Sept.16 - Sept.23.
Intro To Psychology
Ian McDonough
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to Psychology, py101, Psychology; the brain
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peyton Paul on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Ian McDonough in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
Chapter 6 Notes – Categories, Concepts, & Construals [9/19]  Mindsets (video notes) o Doctors gave morphine in two ways- half of patients received it by a nurse (aware), visibly & half of patients received it through an automatic pump (unaware) o Patients who were aware experienced much more pain relief than the other patients, even though it was the same dosage of morphine o This is called the “placebo effect”- a powerful, robust demonstration of the power of our mindset to produce healing in our bodies o ^^ example of the outcome of how we categorize the world & how that influences our thoughts & behaviors. o Mindset- frame of mind through which we view & simplify the world; play a dramatic role in determining health & wellbeing  Concept vs. Category o Category: group of object in the world o Concept: mental representation of the category (how our minds respond to it)  Purpose of Concepts & Categories o 1. Free Mental Resources o 2. Help understand the present situation o 3. Help to infer invisible properties o 4. Communication  How are mental categories structured? o Different Levels  Superior (fruit)  Basic (apple)  Subordinate (Granny Smith apple)  How is similarity used to categorize objects o 1. Activate knowledge structures related to objects in the world o 2. If object in world exceeds some critical level of similarity to activated knowledge, then we attribute object to that category o Maximize within-category similarity o Minimize between-category similarity  How do we measure similarity? o Feature Approach  List all the features you know about an object  ex: apple- round, green, juicy  ex: game- objectives player, winner, rules  The more common features, the more similar  The more unique features, the less similar o The Probabilistic View  Prototype theory (probabilistic)  Concepts are lists of characteristic rather than defining features  Exemplary Theory (probabilistic)  People remember instances and associated properties  Theory-Theory (Intuitive Theory)  Concepts are more like our own personal naiive theories with causally related systems of features rather than mere lists of characteristic features  Ex: birds have wins & are lightweight bc they fly & these behavioral and physical properties arise because of the genetic structure of birds  Modern Theories  Soft-assemble of “concepts” online & over time  Categories are also adapted and fine-tuned depending on the context o Concepts & the Brain  Semantic Dementia  Causes anterior temporal lobe damage  Gray matter (neurons, cell body) is where most of your brain computations happen & that is what degenerates  Axons are located in white matter  Category Network  Set regions of the brain correspond with, actions, words, sounds, motions, colors, shapes, people’s faces, scenes, etc.  ^^ senf info through white matter to gray matter, which forms a conceptual holistic representation o Construal  To interpret in a particular way  How we make sense of the world around us with information we know & existing categories, patterns, etc.


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