PY 101: 9.16.16 - 9.23.16 Lecture Notes
PY 101: 9.16.16 - 9.23.16 Lecture Notes PY 101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peyton Paul on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Ian McDonough in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Chapter 6 Notes – Categories, Concepts, & Construals [9/19] Mindsets (video notes) o Doctors gave morphine in two ways- half of patients received it by a nurse (aware), visibly & half of patients received it through an automatic pump (unaware) o Patients who were aware experienced much more pain relief than the other patients, even though it was the same dosage of morphine o This is called the “placebo effect”- a powerful, robust demonstration of the power of our mindset to produce healing in our bodies o ^^ example of the outcome of how we categorize the world & how that influences our thoughts & behaviors. o Mindset- frame of mind through which we view & simplify the world; play a dramatic role in determining health & wellbeing Concept vs. Category o Category: group of object in the world o Concept: mental representation of the category (how our minds respond to it) Purpose of Concepts & Categories o 1. Free Mental Resources o 2. Help understand the present situation o 3. Help to infer invisible properties o 4. Communication How are mental categories structured? o Different Levels Superior (fruit) Basic (apple) Subordinate (Granny Smith apple) How is similarity used to categorize objects o 1. Activate knowledge structures related to objects in the world o 2. If object in world exceeds some critical level of similarity to activated knowledge, then we attribute object to that category o Maximize within-category similarity o Minimize between-category similarity How do we measure similarity? o Feature Approach List all the features you know about an object ex: apple- round, green, juicy ex: game- objectives player, winner, rules The more common features, the more similar The more unique features, the less similar o The Probabilistic View Prototype theory (probabilistic) Concepts are lists of characteristic rather than defining features Exemplary Theory (probabilistic) People remember instances and associated properties Theory-Theory (Intuitive Theory) Concepts are more like our own personal naiive theories with causally related systems of features rather than mere lists of characteristic features Ex: birds have wins & are lightweight bc they fly & these behavioral and physical properties arise because of the genetic structure of birds Modern Theories Soft-assemble of “concepts” online & over time Categories are also adapted and fine-tuned depending on the context o Concepts & the Brain Semantic Dementia Causes anterior temporal lobe damage Gray matter (neurons, cell body) is where most of your brain computations happen & that is what degenerates Axons are located in white matter Category Network Set regions of the brain correspond with, actions, words, sounds, motions, colors, shapes, people’s faces, scenes, etc. ^^ senf info through white matter to gray matter, which forms a conceptual holistic representation o Construal To interpret in a particular way How we make sense of the world around us with information we know & existing categories, patterns, etc.
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