U.S. History Week 4 lecture notes
U.S. History Week 4 lecture notes AMH2020 0003
University of Central Florida
Popular in U.S. History 1877-Present
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Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Petersen on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMH2020 0003 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. James Clark in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see U.S. History 1877-Present in History at University of Central Florida.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Gustavus Swift –(carry over frompreviousclass) Founder of themeat packingindustry–prior tothat whateveryoucuthadtobeeaten ina day –not really anysort of refrigerationor anything Hedropped out of school asakid and issellingmeatdoortodoor Hecomesup with theideathattherailroadsare shippinglivecows–maybe20cowsfit into a freight car and you ship themfromKansasto Orlandomaybesellingafewalongtheway–so thereare hundreds of freightcars andpens ineverytownetc. Swift’sideaisto slaughter thecow inChicago or oneparticularcity,and just shiptheslabs of meat–somaybe you can fit 50 sides of cowin one carratherthan 20live cows. U.S. railroadstell himnotothis idea becausethey haveinvestedtoomuchin the infrastructure that is already standingsohegoestoCanadawhohasyet toimplement any kindofsystem. They took him up on his ideabut theproblem istheycan onlyshipitthat way during thecold monthsoftheyear. Eventually he getsaroundtomaking therefrigerated fright car. The Automobile Mercedes Studebaker–hasn’t been made inabout50 years Olds–first person tomassproduceacarin theU.S.andowns20% of generalmotors Chevrolet GrabowskiBrothers DodgeBrothers William Durant–founder of generalmotors The automobilecompletely opens up theworld forpeople. ItfreesAmericatogoplacesand changesthe nature ofourcities– Creates the suburbs The automobile wasactually createdby Europeans–but the U.S hasa talent for perfectingand marketingthingsand makingitviable It actually began in the 70’s and80’swithaman named Benz whocreateda motorbike. Then hemade a three wheeled carwhichdidn’t catchon. Thenhefinally madethefour wheeledcar. Hispartner was Dimler Mercedes wasa daughterofone of theinvestorsin thecompany–itwas the nameof themodel,the “Benz Mercedes” By1895 there iseven an automotivemagazine called “horselesscarriage” It promises readers it willlead to feweraccidents,lesstraffic, andlessnoisethanthehorse. Car inventorscame from.. Bicycle makers wagonmakers engineers/mechanics Peoplewould literally slapan engineon theirwoodenwagonsandmake it an automobile Inall there willbe 2000 automobilecompaniesinthiscountry First test trackfor automobilesin America isDaytona.(Daytona500) Upuntil 1957 they were still holdingthebigDaytonaraceson thebeach They come to Ormon beachfor acouple of reasons–itshuge andflat– And upuntil 1910ish people didn’t goto thebeach. Itsbecause peopledidn’twant to tan–if you had tan skinit makes youa commoner. Man wtan is aditchdigger, women w a tan isa prostitute. Henry Flaggler–oneofthe world’swealthiest men–builtahotelin Orman Beach. Lots of wealthypeople lived in thatareasothe carmakerswouldracealongthebeachtoshowoff theircarshoping therich peoplewouldinvestinthem. It isherethatthesteamcar comestoan end. It wasactuallya pretty goodmodelbuttheyhad a few hiccups and it looks liketheendofthe worldwhen itgotinanaccidentwithsteam comingeverywhere. So for safety reasonsit ends,asdoestheelectriccarbecausepeoplecould getshocked. Thegasoline automobile–were originally only aquarterofthecarssold–but cameouton top as thesafesttype ofcar. Olds – First one to make a carthatactually kindoflooks likea car(hasadashboard andthingslike that) Hemass producesit and is doing really well. Hesellsout to own 20% of general motors. But he missesthecarbusinesssohedecidestoget back in with anew car called theR.E.O–his initials Heeventuallyendsup brokebuthesshown it is possibletomassproducecarsinthis country The man who buysOldsMobile is William Durant . Mr. Buick made 17 cars before hewent bankrupt. Durant didn’twantthe company buthe wanted theBuickplant. Hisplan is toacquireevery automobile company,and just like Rockefeller,tohave a monopoly overtheautomobile industry. Hedoesn’t have anymoney though soheistryingto get people tobuy stock. Italmostworksbut hecouldn’tquiteget Ford. Buick buildsa plant inDetroit. Durant acquires itin bankruptcycourt. It becomesthe largest plant in theworld. Butasthe economy changes it downsizes. It isinMichigan andthe entiresurroundingtown isin povertybecause ofthe rise andfallof generalmotorsandit’sa train wreck now–abandoned andlooted. Heacquires all these companies buthestillhasnocashandshortly after1900thereisa recession, which he could havesurvivedif hehadmoney buthedoesn’tsohelosescontrolof generalmotors. Hewants backin thebusiness so hedecidesto builda car. Heturn toLouisChevrolet,a Frenchman and theworlds greatest racecardriver,andaskshim to designacar. Theproblem isthat heisaracecar driver. It hasone seat,uncomfortable,and youhavetocrawltogetin it. Hebuildsexactly onecar and Durantrealizesthat itsnotgoingtosellsohe redesignsit from a fast cartoa family car. Itbecomes one of themostpopularcarsin theworld. Chevrolet is broke. But Durantis very wealthy GeneralMotors sees the success of Chevroletandofferstobuyit. Theonlyproblem isthat theydon’t havecash,they justhavestock. Hetakessomuchthatheonceagain gainscontrol ofgeneralmotors Unfortunately afterWWI there isanotherrecessionandhelosescontroloverthe company yetagain. Chrysler– Lastsuccessful company HenryFord –1908–latetotheautomobile scene AdolfHitler was one of hisbestfriends. One of themostanti-Semiticpeople inthe history of thecountry. He wasacrappyhuman being. Hiscontribution tothe automobile was“a carfor youandme.” Theissueis that thewealthy peoplewanttoinvestin theseexoticluxurycars. Ford’s ideais to producea car for the masses. Before heeven producesithehasafallingoutwithhispartners and hewalks outonthem. Henry Leelandhasthiswholefactory ready togo,soinsteadof makingFordshismakes theLincoln brandandsellsouttoHenryFord. Hegetsboredlater on andcreated thecatyllac,which hesells togeneralmotors. Ford–51%of theautomotive market. Itsan amazingcar thatdoeseverything. Ithasaplow attachment, astove attachment,astump remover,andcommon peoplecan affordit. Andthe morehe producesand themorepeople buy,the lowerthepricesbecomewhichisgoodforthe consumer. BUT he drivesoffall of hispartnersincludingthe Dodgebrothersandrefusestomakeany changestohiscar because hethinks hehas made theperfectcar. Sograduallyhebeginsto losemarket share becauseothercompaniesare passinghimupwiththeirmodifications. Dodge Brothers Autobodymakers Invest in Fordoriginally and they own25%ofthe company. Hebuysthemoutand theymake a fortune. Then theystart making their own cars. Theybecomeknownfordependability. They advertise theircar byrunning itintoa ramandtheramcantpushitback. They sellit toChrysler Sotheynow havethreefortunes. They are one ofthefewwhomakeafortuneandactually keep it. Itisworth a couple billion dollars. Studebaker – Makingwagons and cars in theearly part ofthecentury They do really well and they build greatcars,notunlikethedodgebrothers. Andtheymakea fortune. Theproblem is“the bigthree” Come up with the first two seaters Comeupwiththefirstcompactcar Smallcarcompaniesjustcantmake itbecause theydon’thavethemeans(wealthand resources) to match thelarger carcompanies But theirbig moves are matched by the Camaro,barracuda,mustang,etc. They quickly realize that theycan’t compete andkeepupsoeventuallytheyjustgiveup. They stillhave tons ofreal estatethroughoutthe country andtheyhaveacquiredexclusive rightsto sellMercedesin theU.S.,and they have billionsofdollarsbuttheyclosedtheircompany doors. Ford makes thefirst tractorsand pick up trucks–heisalways thinkingofthefarmerandwhat isgoingto make theirlifeeasier When Chrysler buysdodgethey gettheir truckdivision Generalmotorsdoesn’t have a truck division GrabowskiMotor Coorporation – GMC!!! Highways: Hugeproblem–because atfirstroads are built by citiesorstates. Soyoubuy acarin1910, and great, you can drive3 miles. The statescanbuild roads within astatebut whathappensifyouwanttogotoGeorgiaor Maine? Thefedgov realizes early on thatthey willneedtoget involvedinbuildinghighways–1916 theyagree to pay halfof the highwaysbuiltinthe U.S. In1954 Congress passes theinterstate highwayact. It createsthismassivenetwork of highways butthereisresistancetothis. People don’tthinkthefederalgovernmentshouldbe doingthis. SoPresident Eisenhowersays that itsactuallyformilitarypurposes. Theycalled it thenational defense highwayact.
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