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Week 4 Psych notes

by: Becca Petersen

Week 4 Psych notes PSY2012-16Fall 0002

Becca Petersen
University of Central Florida

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About this Document

Lecture notes from week 4 from general psych
General Psychology
Dr. Alisha Janowsky
Class Notes
Cognitive Psychology, Psychology, Intro to Psychology
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Petersen on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012-16Fall 0002 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. Alisha Janowsky in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
Psychology: PSY2012 -16Fall 0002 Lecture notes week 4 Dr. Alisha Janowsky   Nature,  Nurture,  and  Behavior   Behavior  genetics   Evolutionary  Psychology   Environmental  influences     Nature  and  Nurture  interact  together  to  yield  a  particular  individual     Transactional  model  of  development   A  child’s  genetic  nature  is  going  to  impact  how  the  experience  their  environment     Ex:  lets  say  there  is  a  child  who  is  particularly  extroverted  –  meaning  their   environment  is  going  to  treat  them  a  particular  way.       Behavioral Genetics -      “Extent  to  which  genetic  and  environmental  differences  among  people  are   responsible  for  differences  in  their  traits”     *How  much  diversity  we  see  in  the  environment  and  how  much  of  that  can   be  linked  to  genetics     -­‐  Genotype  (what  you  are  genetically  made  up  of  –  the  complete  instructions)  –         -­‐Genes  (DNA  segments  that  form  templates  for  production  for  proteins-­‐  who   you  are  going  to  be)  -­‐             -­‐Chromosomes  (23  pairs)               -­‐DNA  (deoxcyribose  Nucleic  Acid)     Most  common  way  to  study  this  is  through  twin  and  adoption  research       One  of  the  things  to  look  for  is  shared  environmental  influences         -­‐Parenting  style       -­‐Socioeconomic  style       -­‐Kind  of  neighborhood  you’re  raised  in     Non  shared  environmental  factor  –       Ex:  between  siblings  who  have  different  experiences  growing  up  or  perhaps  think   they  are  their  parents  favorite  because  their  parents  respond  to  them  differently     Twin Studies       Identical  Twins   Develop  from  a  single  zygote  (fertilized  egg)  that  splits  in  two,  creating  two  genetic   replicas     This  means  identical  twins  have  to  be  of  the  same  gender     Fraternal  Twins:   Develop  from  separate  zygotes   Genetically  no  closer  than  brother/sisters  but  share  fetal  environment       Methods of Study - Familial  Association-­‐             Shared  traits  and  disorders  among  family  members             Greater  similarity  among  more  closely  related  family  members   Twin-­‐       Differences  between  identical  and  fraternal  twins         Concordance  rates  are  greater  in  identical  twins  than  fraternal  twins     Adoption-­‐       Similarity  between  adoptees  and  their  biological  and  adopted  parents     Concordance  rates  (correlation  rates)  are  higher  with  biological  parents  (i.e.   genetic  traits)  –  religion,  values,  all  of  those  types  of  things  are  likely  to  come   from  your  adopted  parents     Temperament -   A  starting  point  for  traits  you  see  later  in  life  –  how  emotionally  excitable  the  infant  is     Chess  and  Thomas  –  three  different  types  of  temperament     1.    Easy  Child   –  (the  majority  of  children)     Pretty  positive  mood,  quickly  develop  a  schedule     2.    Difficult  children  –       React  very  negatively  to  new  stimulants,  don’t  have  a  regular  routine,  cry  frequently     3.  Slow  to  warm  children  -­‐     Low  activity  level,  somewhat  negative,  shows  low  adaptability,  displays  low   intensity  mood       Gene -environmental Interaction -     3  basic  types  of  effects     1.  Passive  Effects   –  parents  provide  the  rearing  environment       A  child’s  phenotype  (what  the  look  like)  –  are  influenced  both  by  their  genotype   (genetically  what  they  get)  and  their  environment       1. Evocative  Effects-­‐     From  the  individual  eliciting  responses  from  others     2. Active  Effects-­‐       One’s  genotype  effects  the  type  of  environment  one  chooses  to  experience   You  now  get  to  choose  what  social  looks  like  for  you     Evolutionary Psychology - Study  of  evolution  of  behavior  and  the  mind  using  principles  of  natural  selection  (Darwin)     Name  of  the  game  with  evolution  is  reproduction  –     Genes  are  naturally  selected  based  on  the  idea  of  adaptability     So  we  consider  what  behaviors  and  what  parts  of  the  mind  might  have  been  naturally   selected  over  time     Mutations  –  where  the  process  begins   Random  errors  in  gene  replication  that  lead  to  a  change  in  the  sequence  of   nucleotides  source  of  all  genetic  diversity       Natural Selectio n     Environmental  pressure  -­‐-­‐à  Competition  for  resources  -­‐à  selection  of  fittest  phenotype   among  variety  of  phenotypes  -­‐à  Reproductive  success:  genotype  corresponding  to  fittest   phenotype  passed  to  next  generation  à  frequency  of  genotype  increases     Example  in  class-­‐  rating  qualities  men  vs  women  look  for  in  a  life  partner  –  typically  men   rank  physical  attractiveness  higher  than  women  and  women  prioritize  earning  capacity   higher  than  men.         Evolutionarily  speaking  –  when  psych  looked  at  the  idea  of  mating  strategies  it  had   to  do  with  heredital  interests  –  physically  attractive  women  may  have  better  reproductive   capability.    Women  are  much  more  invested  because  they  have  a  nine  month  investment  in   this  –  so  they  want  someone  who  will  stick  around  and  provide.         Evidence     –  you  can  only  make  assumptions  because  you  cant  go  back  in  time  to  test  out  this  theory     Men  are  more  likely  than  women  to  .  .  .     Engage  in  hit  and  run  sex   Perceive  a  warm  response  as  a  come-­‐on     Men  tend  to  prefer  youthful  looking  women   Women  tend  to  prefer  more  mature,  dominant,  affluent  men     The environment :     Peer  influence       What  classes  to  take,  maybe  who  to  vote  for…     Different  over  time     Cultural  Influence     Individualist  culture  vs  a  collectivist  culture  (western  vs  eastern)       Social  Norms-­‐       Standing  for  the  pledge  of  allegiance,  taking  off  shoes  at  the  door     Bathroom  etiquette,  personal  space     Child  rearing  –  how  we  choose  to  raise  children     Development:     The  nature  of  development       Biological  processes     cognitive  processes       Social  skills,  learning     Socioemotional  processes   perceptions  of  gender,  our  relationships,  what  motivates  us,  our   personalities     Developmental Issues :       Continuity  and  discontinuity     Debate  about  the  extent  to  which  development  involves  gradual   change       Stage  theories         Involve  transitory  times  of  growth  from  infancy           Stability  and  Change   Debate  about  the  degree  to  which  early  traits  and  characteristics   persist  through  life.    How  much  we  personally  change  through  life/   how  much  we  are  actually  able  to  change         Prenatal  Development       1.  Germinal  Period  –  fertilization  through  2  week   nd     Zygote  –  fertilized  egg       Develops  into  an  embryo     2.  Embryonic  stage  –  2  weeks  through  the  second  month       Organogenesis       Sex  differentiation         Amnian,  ambylical  cord     3.Fetal  Period  –  from  the  9  week  until  birth         st rd 1  trimester  –  until  the  end  of  the  3  month         bones,  muscles,  sex  organs  develop         2  trimester  –  4  through  the  6  month   th       thumb  sucking  and  sensory  organ  development         age  of  viability         3  trimester  –  7  through  the  9  month   th       Rapid  physical  growth  and  brain  development   Infant  states  –  the  nervous  system  is  functioning  so  you  start  to  see   patterns  of  waking  and  sleeping       Maternal  Prenatal  Influence     Mom’s  habits  and  diet  impact  the  baby     If  mother  is  malnourished  the  baby  will  be  malnourished     Fetal  alcohol  syndrome     Zika  Virus       Environment  surrounding  birth:       Drugs  given  during  delivery  –  can  have  an  impact     Delivery  practice     Social  environment  after  delivery       Hazards:   Anoxia  –  oxygen  shortage  can  lead  to  mental  retardation  and  cerebral  palsy   Delivery  problems     Newborns:   Rooting  Reflex  –  tendency  to  open  mouth  and  search  for  nipple  when  touched  on  the  cheek     Preferences  –  human  voices  and  faces     Face-­‐like  images     Smell  and  sound  of  mother     Newborn Maturation:       Maturation  –  biological  growth  processes  that  enable  orderly  changes  in  behavior     They  are  born  with  pretty  much  all  the  neurons  that  they  will  have     Infantile  amnesia  –  we  consciously  recall  little  before  age  4  when  we  are  adults    


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