Week 4 Psych notes
Week 4 Psych notes PSY2012-16Fall 0002
University of Central Florida
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Petersen on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012-16Fall 0002 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. Alisha Janowsky in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Central Florida.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Psychology: PSY2012 -16Fall 0002 Lecture notes week 4 Dr. Alisha Janowsky Nature, Nurture, and Behavior Behavior genetics Evolutionary Psychology Environmental influences Nature and Nurture interact together to yield a particular individual Transactional model of development A child’s genetic nature is going to impact how the experience their environment Ex: lets say there is a child who is particularly extroverted – meaning their environment is going to treat them a particular way. Behavioral Genetics - “Extent to which genetic and environmental differences among people are responsible for differences in their traits” *How much diversity we see in the environment and how much of that can be linked to genetics -‐ Genotype (what you are genetically made up of – the complete instructions) – -‐Genes (DNA segments that form templates for production for proteins-‐ who you are going to be) -‐ -‐Chromosomes (23 pairs) -‐DNA (deoxcyribose Nucleic Acid) Most common way to study this is through twin and adoption research One of the things to look for is shared environmental influences -‐Parenting style -‐Socioeconomic style -‐Kind of neighborhood you’re raised in Non shared environmental factor – Ex: between siblings who have different experiences growing up or perhaps think they are their parents favorite because their parents respond to them differently Twin Studies Identical Twins Develop from a single zygote (fertilized egg) that splits in two, creating two genetic replicas This means identical twins have to be of the same gender Fraternal Twins: Develop from separate zygotes Genetically no closer than brother/sisters but share fetal environment Methods of Study - Familial Association-‐ Shared traits and disorders among family members Greater similarity among more closely related family members Twin-‐ Differences between identical and fraternal twins Concordance rates are greater in identical twins than fraternal twins Adoption-‐ Similarity between adoptees and their biological and adopted parents Concordance rates (correlation rates) are higher with biological parents (i.e. genetic traits) – religion, values, all of those types of things are likely to come from your adopted parents Temperament - A starting point for traits you see later in life – how emotionally excitable the infant is Chess and Thomas – three different types of temperament 1. Easy Child – (the majority of children) Pretty positive mood, quickly develop a schedule 2. Difficult children – React very negatively to new stimulants, don’t have a regular routine, cry frequently 3. Slow to warm children -‐ Low activity level, somewhat negative, shows low adaptability, displays low intensity mood Gene -environmental Interaction - 3 basic types of effects 1. Passive Effects – parents provide the rearing environment A child’s phenotype (what the look like) – are influenced both by their genotype (genetically what they get) and their environment 1. Evocative Effects-‐ From the individual eliciting responses from others 2. Active Effects-‐ One’s genotype effects the type of environment one chooses to experience You now get to choose what social looks like for you Evolutionary Psychology - Study of evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of natural selection (Darwin) Name of the game with evolution is reproduction – Genes are naturally selected based on the idea of adaptability So we consider what behaviors and what parts of the mind might have been naturally selected over time Mutations – where the process begins Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides source of all genetic diversity Natural Selectio n Environmental pressure -‐-‐à Competition for resources -‐à selection of fittest phenotype among variety of phenotypes -‐à Reproductive success: genotype corresponding to fittest phenotype passed to next generation à frequency of genotype increases Example in class-‐ rating qualities men vs women look for in a life partner – typically men rank physical attractiveness higher than women and women prioritize earning capacity higher than men. Evolutionarily speaking – when psych looked at the idea of mating strategies it had to do with heredital interests – physically attractive women may have better reproductive capability. Women are much more invested because they have a nine month investment in this – so they want someone who will stick around and provide. Evidence – you can only make assumptions because you cant go back in time to test out this theory Men are more likely than women to . . . Engage in hit and run sex Perceive a warm response as a come-‐on Men tend to prefer youthful looking women Women tend to prefer more mature, dominant, affluent men The environment : Peer influence What classes to take, maybe who to vote for… Different over time Cultural Influence Individualist culture vs a collectivist culture (western vs eastern) Social Norms-‐ Standing for the pledge of allegiance, taking off shoes at the door Bathroom etiquette, personal space Child rearing – how we choose to raise children Development: The nature of development Biological processes cognitive processes Social skills, learning Socioemotional processes perceptions of gender, our relationships, what motivates us, our personalities Developmental Issues : Continuity and discontinuity Debate about the extent to which development involves gradual change Stage theories Involve transitory times of growth from infancy Stability and Change Debate about the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life. How much we personally change through life/ how much we are actually able to change Prenatal Development 1. Germinal Period – fertilization through 2 week nd Zygote – fertilized egg Develops into an embryo 2. Embryonic stage – 2 weeks through the second month Organogenesis Sex differentiation Amnian, ambylical cord 3.Fetal Period – from the 9 week until birth st rd 1 trimester – until the end of the 3 month bones, muscles, sex organs develop 2 trimester – 4 through the 6 month th thumb sucking and sensory organ development age of viability 3 trimester – 7 through the 9 month th Rapid physical growth and brain development Infant states – the nervous system is functioning so you start to see patterns of waking and sleeping Maternal Prenatal Influence Mom’s habits and diet impact the baby If mother is malnourished the baby will be malnourished Fetal alcohol syndrome Zika Virus Environment surrounding birth: Drugs given during delivery – can have an impact Delivery practice Social environment after delivery Hazards: Anoxia – oxygen shortage can lead to mental retardation and cerebral palsy Delivery problems Newborns: Rooting Reflex – tendency to open mouth and search for nipple when touched on the cheek Preferences – human voices and faces Face-‐like images Smell and sound of mother Newborn Maturation: Maturation – biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior They are born with pretty much all the neurons that they will have Infantile amnesia – we consciously recall little before age 4 when we are adults
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