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LING 253 Week 4 Notes

by: Kelsey Mulford

LING 253 Week 4 Notes LING253

Marketplace > University of Delaware > LING253 > LING 253 Week 4 Notes
Kelsey Mulford

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About this Document

This is the notes for the 9/20/16 class of LING 253. We talked about different types of stops and how to produce them.
Laboratory Phonetics
Thomas Parrell
Class Notes
Linguistics, stops, consonants, implosives, explosives, plosives, Language
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Mulford on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING253 at University of Delaware taught by Thomas Parrell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
LING253 Notes for 9/20/16 and 9/22/16 Notes for 9/20/16: Consonant: a sound involving a relatively narrow constriction of the vocal tract, marked by the place of articulation and the manner of articulation  Place of articulation refers to where in the mouth the sound is made such as alveolar, velar, or labiodental  Manner of articulation can refer to full closure, narrow constriction of wide constriction of the vocal tract or it can refer to which escape channel the air is using such as nasal or lateral o But what are some other ways of controlling air flow? o You can create pressure differentials that can product the vibration of the flexible tissue (example: voicing, trills) and the equalization of pressure (example: stops-release, implosives) Airflow  Something that causes changes in the volume of some part of the vocal tract is called a vocal tract initiator. o Larynx- Glottalic initiator o Tongue body- Velaric initiator o Lungs- Pulmonic initiator  Air can flow in two directions, outward (egressive) and inward (ingressive) o Pulmonic egressive sounds (sounds produced by air flowing outward from the lungs) are universal and are the most common sounds o Pulmonic ingressive sounds are less common but can be found in some languages, made mostly by inhaling quickly o Glottalic egressive sounds are also called ejective and are produced by moving the glottis up to increase the pressure, notated by a small apostrophe by the letter, most of these ejectives are stops, these sounds are only voiceless because voiced sounds require the vocal folds to vibrate which would not produce the pressure we need in the oral cavity to produce these sounds  For example, [k’] is much louder than a [k] and sounds more like a burst o Glottalic ingressive sounds, also known as implosives, are made by lowing the larynx, decreasing pressure in the mouth, and having air go inwards instead of outwards, they are noted by a ‘curly line’ going to the right on the top of the letter, made by first closing the lips to create lower pressure in the mouth and then lowering the glottis, vocal folds are typically vibrating when making these sounds to neutralize the pressure difference  With these sounds, the amplitudes increase instead of decrease before the sound o Velaric ingressive sounds are also known as clicks, you must first close the oral cavity by using the tongue tip to the teeth, the lips, or closing the mouth, and then making another constriction by placing the tongue body against the hard palate, this produces pressure in a little pocket of air that’s left in the mouth Stops  Stops are called stops because they give full closure to the oral cavity, also called plosives  They have three distinct phases: o Closure o Release o Aspiration  This is frication caused at the vocal folds without vibration, aspirated stops have a long period of aspiration  Voiced stops have no voice onset times  Voiced unaspirated have little to no voice onset times  Voiced aspirated have long voice onset times  Babies tend to make bilabial stops first because they are the easiest to produce and just require jaw movement  The first classification for these sounds is the part of the tongue used for producing this sound o Coronal stops can be:  Apical means tongue tip is up and tongue blade is down  Retroflex stops are always apical, this is where the tip of the tongue curls back  Laminal means tongue tip is down and tongue blade is down  Apico-laminal means tongue tip is up and tongue blade is down  Palatogram means painting the tongue and seeing where it touches the palate  Linguogram means painting the palate and seeing where it touches the tongue o Dorsal stops are made with the back of the tongue  Palatal is more common than velar is more common than uvular o Radical stops can either be pharyngeal or epiglottal and are not that common o The only laryngeal stop we have is a glottal stop and is voiceless


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