Week 5 - Cardiovascular System
Week 5 - Cardiovascular System Nutr 1020
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by rgslc8 on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Nutr 1020 at University of Utah taught by Anandh Babu Pon Velayutham in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Scientific Foundations of Nutrition and Health in Nutrition at University of Utah.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Cardiovascular Disease --- September 20 Cardiovascular system (Heart, blood vessels, and blood) Basic fuels + Oxygen (energy Metabolism) Energy + CO2 Organs Vena Cava Heart Pulmonary Artery Lungs Pulmonary Veins Heart Aorta Function of heart: to pump oxygen rich blood to different parts of the body Arteries Arteries are blood vessels that deliver oxygen rich blood from the heart to the tissues of the body Three layers: o Intima (endothelial cells) o Media (smooth muscle and elastin) o Adventitia (elastin and collagen) Coronary artery: delivers blood to the heart itself o Handles 130 gallons of blood per day o Branch from the main aorta Cardiovascular Disease CVD generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain, or stroke. Leading cause of death One in every three deaths is from heart disease and stroke o One death every 40 seconds in America Atherosclerosis is the usual cause of CVD Atherosclerosis: the process of progressive thickening and hardening of the walls of arteries from fat deposits on the inner lining. Proinflammatory stimuli (triggers) o High cholesterol o High glucose o High blood pressure o Insulin resistance Diet plays a huge role in atherosclerosis Consequences: o Stroke Block in cerebral artery o Heart Attack Block in coronary artery 1.5 million cases annually in US o Gangrene and amputation Block in peripheral arteries What causes atherosclerosis? o Vascular inflammation mediates atherosclerosis Cardiovascular Disease --- September 20 o Monocytes combine with oxidized LDL Macrophage Uptake more lipids Foam cell formation Lipid molecules Symptoms of Heart Attack Chest Pain o Primary Dizziness o Lack of blood flow to the head Shortness of Breath Nausea o GI Tract is not getting enough oxygen Sweating Rapid or Irregular Heart Beat Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Non-modifiable risk factors Gender o Men are at greater risk than pre-menopausal women Age o Men >45 Women >55 Family History Modifiable risk factors Smoking o 20% of CV death is due to smoking Dyslipidemia (abnormal blood lipids) Diabetes Obesity High Blood Pressure Physical Inactivity Unhealthy Diet Blood Lipids Lipid panel measures: o Total cholesterol level Below 200 = desirable o Triglyceride level Below 150 mg/dL = desirable o HDL cholesterol level Below 100 = best o LDL cholesterol level Nutrients and Cardiovascular Health Beneficial outcomes of a nutrient: Lower cardiovascular risk o Lower bad cholesterol Cardiovascular Disease --- September 20 o Up good cholesterol o Lower blood pressure o Lower oxidative stress o Lower inflammation Examples: plant sterols, phytochemicals, fiber, antioxidant nutrients, polyunsaturated fatty acids Detrimental outcomes of a nutrient: Increased cardiovascular risk o Examples: high cholesterol, saturated fat, trans fat, added sugars Heart Healthy Diet Eat a variety of nutritious foods from all the food groups Eat nutrient rich foods Emphasis on fruits and vegetables, whole grains, fish, nuts, low fat dairy products Antioxidant Nutrient o Fruits and vegetables o Sources: legumes, nuts, dried plums, raisins, berries, apples, cherries, tea, dark chocolate Plant Sterols o Reduce the cholesterol absorption and reduce LDL cholesterol o Sources: nuts, wheat germ, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds Limit: processed meat, saturated fatty acids, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, added sugars, soft drinks, highly refined foods Preventing Heart Disease Don’t eat more calories than you know you can burn every day 30 minutes moderate physical activity on more days of the week Medications Drugs to reduce blood clot o Aspirin Drugs to reduce blood cholesterol o Statins Drugs to lower triglycerides o Statins and fibrates Surgical Treatment for Cardiovascular Disease Coronary angioplasty o Restore blood flow through an artery Coronary stenting Coronary Artery Bypass Graft o Creates a new path for blood to flow through the heart
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