New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Bio 1113 Week 5 Notes

by: Jessy Notetaker

Bio 1113 Week 5 Notes Biology 1113

Marketplace > Ohio State University > Biology > Biology 1113 > Bio 1113 Week 5 Notes
Jessy Notetaker
GPA 2.8

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These cover cell signaling and the rest of membrane transport.
Biology 1113
Dr. Ball and Dr. Weinstein
Class Notes
Biology, cells, cell communication
25 ?




Popular in Biology 1113

Popular in Biology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessy Notetaker on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1113 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Ball and Dr. Weinstein in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Biology 1113 in Biology at Ohio State University.


Reviews for Bio 1113 Week 5 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/23/16
Cell communication con’t.  Membrane transport  Membrane is selectively permeable  All molecules can't just pass through whenever  Nonpolar molecules can cross easily  Ions and polar molecules need a doorway  Types of transport  Simple diffusion  Passive transport  Moves a molecule from high concentration areas to low concentration  areas  Moves down its own concentration gradient  Spontaneous  Not really fast  Means it doesn't require energy  Each molecules moves on its own gradient  Osmosis  Molecules moving across a barrier  Reaches equilibrium  Solutes are independent of one another  Facilitated diffusion  Passive transport  Membrane does not allow ions and polar molecules  Transport proteins help them diffuse passively across the membrane  High concentration to low concentration  Channel proteins  Provide a doorway, but with no door  Transports 3 billion water molecules per second  Carrier proteins  Changes shape  Doorway with a swinging door  High concentration to low concentration  Active transport  Requires ATP  Movement of molecules ​against their concentration gradient  Does not happen on its own  Sodium­potassium exchange pump  Works in neurons  Builds up concentration gradients  Once they are built up enough, they move down  their gradient, with another molecule that is building  theirs  Bulk transport  Allows large amounts of molecules and particles to enter the cell  Requires energy  Endocytosis  Cell encompasses the molecules/particles  Brings things into a cell  Tonicity  Refers to the environment around a cell (gain/looe water)  Isotonic  Same amount of solute inside the cell as outside the cell  No net loss or gain of water  Cell is stable  Hypertonic  More solutes outside of the cell  More solutes = less water  Water moves out of the cell  Cells shrivel up  Hypotonic  More water in the environment  Water moves into the cell  Animal cells may burst  Tophat questions  Which of the following would move through the lipid bilayer most rapidly?  Not a polar molecule  Not a large molecule  Not an ion  CO​ 2  What statement about osmosis is correct?  The presence of aquaporins would speed the process up    Cell signaling  Local signaling  Cell junctions​ allow signaling molecules to pass freely between adjacent cells  Direct physical contact  Cell to cell recognitio​ via cell­surface molecules  Can tell a neighboring cell what they are  Paracrine signaling  Molecule is released in a vesicle will enter other cells with the other cells  that have the right receptors  Can respond to itself  Cell division  Long­distance signaling  Use hormones  Hormones travel through the bloodstream to reach target cells  Ability of cell to respond depends on whether or not it has receptors that  can bind to the signaling molecules  Adrenaline  Prepares you to respond in some way  Fight or flight  3 stages of cell signaling  Reception  Signal is detected by the cell  A receptor protein on the surface of the cell (or inside the cell) binds to a  signaling molecule  (ligand) and transmits the signal  Binding is very specific  Usually causes the receptor to change its shape  3 types of membrane receptors  G protein­coupled  ​ receptors  Plasma membrane receptors that are associated with G  proteins  G protein acts as an on/off switch  When GDP is attached it is off  No phosphate attached  When signaling molecule enters the receptor, it  kicks GDP off and makes GTP that turns it on  Phosphate is attached  Makes GTPase  If the G protein lacks the ability to change to GTPase, what  will happen?  The G protein will continuously function  Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)  Each is a monomer, come together to make a dimer  Membrane receptors with enzymatic activity which attach  phosphates to tyrosine residues  Signal molecules bind outside of the cells and  cause the monomers to come together and make a  dimer  One RTK may activate 10 or more different pathways  Ion channel receptors  Binding of a ligand causes conformational change  Opens the channel  Allows specific ions through  How nerves work  Intracellular receptors  Inside the cell  Found either in the cytoplasm or nucleus  Signaling molecule must be able to move through  the membrane  Small molecules  Steroid hormones  Thyroid hormones  Nitric oxide  Nothing polar  Must be hydrophobic  Transduction  The relay of signals from receptors to target molecules in the cell  Often involves multiple steps  More steps amplify the signal  Allows for more regulation  Message is often passed along through a change in shape of the protein  Phosphorylation  ​ = add phosphate  Protein kinase  Makes a phosphorylation cascade  Dephosphorylation  ​ = remove phosphate  Phosphatases  Second messengers  Small, non­protein, water­soluble molecules  Can easily spread a throughout message  cAMP  Cyclic adenosine monophosphate  ATP­­> cAMP   


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.