PBIO3440: Metabolites and Herb Cabinet
PBIO3440: Metabolites and Herb Cabinet PBIO 3440
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PBIO 3440 at University of Georgia taught by Affolter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Medicinal Herbs Spices and Plants in Plant Biology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
METABOLITES AND HERB CABINET PRIMARY VS SECONDARY METABOLITES Frankle (1953) o Determined why plants have secondary metabolites Ecological reason Pollination Deter herbivores from eating them Battling bacteria and fungus Toxic to other plants Black walnuts Primary Metabolites o Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids essential to life o occur in the major metabolic pathways of plants respiration, photosynthesis, cell division Secondary Metabolites o other compounds produced via other metabolic pathways o serve diverse functions in plants o often the source of a plant’s medicinal or culinary value o many plant toxins also belong to this group o ecological importance Attracting pollinators and fruit dispersers Inhibiting bacterial and fungal pathogens Deterring grazing animals and herbivorous insects Inhibiting the growth of competing plants o Terpenes Hydrocarbons: compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen Range greatly in size and structure Essential Oils Provide the flavor and aroma of many herbs and spices provide scents used in perfumes and incense Resins Sticky/sappy Comes from trees Used in the production of pharmaceuticals, varnishes, rosin, insecticides, chewing gum, turpentine, perfumes, and oil-based paints Polyterpenes Made up of smaller subunits that arrange into a long chain Generally elastic because the long chains make it fluid/flexible o natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis, the Rubber Tree Taxol terpene obtained from the Pacific Yew anticancer Carotenoid Pigment the red, orange, and yellow pigments found in plants usually classified as primary metabolites o aids in photosynthesis o Phenolics All contain one or more aromatic benzene rings (a ring of 6 carbon atoms with 6 hydrogen atoms attached) with one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups Large and diverse category of compounds Many different sized and structures Browning of an apple caused be the interaction of phenolic compounds and air Flavonoids Includes water-soluble pigments known as anthocyanins found in red cabbage and many flower petals antioxidants Tannins Utilized as stains, dyes, inks, and tanning agents for leather Believed to function in plants by discouraging herbivores Important flavor compounds in tea, red wine, and many fruits Astringents Prevent decompositions by binding to proteins Good for digestion Lignin Lignin is actually a primary metabolite found in the cell wall of many plants Lignin gives wood its hardness and strength Composed of thousands of phenolic molecules o Urushiol contact poison in Poison Ivy and Poison Oak that causes the itchy, blistering rash o Tetrahydrocannabinol a phenolic resin the active ingredient in marijuana o Glycosides Compounds containing a sugar (often glucose) with a non-sugar molecule When these compounds are metabolized by animals, the sugar splits off and the non-sugar component becomes physiologically active non-sugar component is typically a terpene, steroid (a type of lipid), or phenolic compound Saponins Combination of a sugar and a steroid Form a soapy lather when mixed with water o used in detergents and shampoos Bitter-tasting, cause gastric upsets Yams o the source of steroids used in the manufacture of human sex hormones and cortisone o vines that produce large tubers that are rich in starch, with some additional protein o 10 species of Dioscorea (Yams) are important food crops in the tropics o Early research on the development of the birth control pill was based on diosgenin extracted from Yams and shown to inhibit ovulation Cardiac Glycosides The active portion of the molecule is similar to a steroid Cardiac glycosides affect the heartbeat Fatal if consumed in large doses Digitoxin from Foxglove is an important medicine for congestive heart failure Cyanogenic Glycosides release deadly hydrogen cyanide (HCN) when metabolized Cassavais o the sixth most important food crop in the world o its edible tubers can cause death by cyanide poisoning if they are not processed to remove the toxins by soaking, boiling, fermenting, and other methods o Alkaloids Nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites that are synthesized from various amino acids Known for their effects on mammalian physiology, especially the central nervous system Many are similar to neurotransmitters found in the brain, and most are considered psychoactive Some alkaloids are stimulants caffeine, cocaine, and ephedrine Some alkaloids are depressants morphine and codeine some alkaloids are hallucinogenic mescaline, the tropane alkaloids, and ergot alkaloids In high doses, many alkaloids are deadly poisons sulphur-containing compounds release of volatile sulphur-containing compounds when cells are damaged is the reason we value many plants in the Mustard and Onion families Isothiocyanates substrate compound and the enzyme are stored in different compartments within the cell o when cells are broken or crushed the substrate and enzyme are brought into contact and they react, producing the spicy flavor compound lacrimatory factor o crying factor HERB CABINET, PART 1 CASE STUDY: GINGER FOR USE IN MOTION SICKNESS o A female patient in her mid-twenties has been examining the herbals section of the community pharmacy in which you serve as an intern. She approaches you with a bottle of ginger in her hands. She says that she is driving to San Francisco from Omaha and suffers from motion sickness. She has used dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) in the past to control her motion sickness, but it makes her drowsy, and since she is going to share the driving responsibilities with her room-mate, she does not want to use it. She has read that ginger can be used to control the nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness. She asks you if that is true, should she use ginger, and what are the side effects? What do you tell her? Ginger, Zingiber officinale o Herbaceous perennial o Native to Asia o grown throughout tropics o Part used: rhizome o Medicinal Purposes: Nausea, motion sickness, indigestion o Cautions: anti-coagulant drugs (ginger thins blood) Medical Trials o Typically used in allopathic medicine o Western mainstream o Staple for determining safety and whether the thing works o Methods Placebo controlled Can’t tell it apart from actual thing but has no physiological impact Double-blind Clinician and participant don’t know who’s getting what Cross over All participants get both the placebo and thing being tested Wash out period o Between two trials o Period where nobody is taking anything Statistical design o Random assignment Ginger’s trial o 36 participants o strap someone in chair which would changes directions for 6 minutes or until you vomit o Dramamine Treats central nervous system Causes drowsiness Average time in chair 1.5 minutes o Placebo Average time in chair 3.5 minutes o Ginger Works directly on GI tract About half of participants made it the entire 6 minutes Average time in chair 5.5 minutes Medicinal Plants for Motion Sickness o Valerian o Catnip o Black horehound o Licorice root o Peppermint o Chamomile Peppermint o Mentha x piperita o Mint Family o Herbaceous perennial o Native to Europe o leaf contains menthol o hybrid of spearmint and watermint o medicinal use nausea, indigestion, flatulence, GI spasms o caution do not ingest essential oil can cause infants and children to choke because of the menthol o essential oil principal components include menthol and menthone very important as a commercial flavoring cultivated on a large scale pure essential oil is very potent can be lethal if ingested tea is a better option relaxes the lower esophageal sphincter avoid if suffering from acid reflux Chamomile, Matricaria recutita o Sunflower family o Aromatic annual o Native to western Asia o Flower contains medicinal proterties o Medicinal use Nausea indigestion Insomnia Tea is a mild sedative anti-inflammatory antiseptic Relieves gas Calms intestinal spasms Soothes GI tract Used topically for blisters and acne Wound-healing Moisten tea bag and hold against skin o Caution Contact dermatitis Pollen allergy o Tea is a mild sedative Psyllium, Plantago spp. o Plantain family o Annual o Native to Mediterranean region o Seeds and husk turned into powder seed husk absorb water and swell in size produces a jelly-like mucilage mucilage soothes lining of gut o Medicinal use Constipation Diarrhea hemorrhoids o Caution Relatively safe bulk laxative o Unaffected by bacteria Purgatives and Cathartics o Purging has been a popular practice at various times in human history Egyptians thought all diseases came from food Mixed beer with caster oil and purged every few months London apothecaries encouraged purging every fortnight (two weeks) in their shops Today, laxative abuse is one of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa o Laxatives Bulk-forming laxatives not digested but absorb liquid in the intestines and swell to form a soft, bulky mass bowel is then stimulated normally by the presence of the bulky mass Stimulant laxatives increase the waves of contraction in the intestinal muscles (peristalsis) because of the secondary plant products they contain harsher than bulk-forming laxatives and should only be used occasionally demulcent a substance, often rich in mucilage, that can soothe and protect inflamed or irritated internal tissues Senna, Cassia senna o Pea family o Perennial shrub o Native to tropical africa o Part used Fruit pods Leaves Stronger o Medicinal purpose Constipation Stimulant laxative o Caution Can cause cramps and diarrhea Do not give to children o Secondary compounds Anthraquinones called sennosides Cause water to flow into the colon instead of out Stimulate more forceful contractions of the colon activated by the natural bacteria found in the colon bacteria liberate the active compounds from attached sugars –another example of a glycoside Aloe vera, A. barbadensis o Perennial with succulent leaves o Native to Africa o Part used Leaves Gel o Polysaccharides keep wounds moist by absorbing water like a sponge o Recruits white blood cells to repair and defend tissues o Promotes formation of new capillaries o Inhibits formation of free radicals o Can inhibit formation of more painful prostaglandin molecules Juice o Juice made commercially from the gel in the interior of the leaf Taken internally for peptic ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome o Medicinal purpose Burns and scrapes Constipation Ulcers o Caution Don’t use if intestines are obstructed or inflamed (colitis) o Anthraquinone compounds are obtained from dried yellow latex in leaves, stored just below the epidermis Extremely potent laxative effect o Cleansing, soothing, and healing effect CASE STUDY: LICORICE FOR TREATMENT OF PEPTIC ULCERS o A 58-year-old male patient has been recently diagnosed with congestive heart failure and he has been placed on a digitalis preparation. In the course of taking a patient history, you note that he has been previously diagnosed with a peptic ulcer. You ask if he is taking any medications, OTC or herbal, for this. After some discussion, he reveals that he has been told by friends that licorice is useful in calming the stomach and for helping prevent ulcers, so he has been ingesting it regularly. What advice do you give this patient? Peptic Ulcers o Perforations in lining of upper GI tract o About 10% of Americans suffer from ulcers at some point in life o Previously the problem was blamed on excess stomach acid due to stress, diet, etc. o Now known that bacterial infections are present in most ulcers and antibiotics are often prescribed o Ibuprofen and aspirin also promote ulcers Licorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra o Woody-stemmed perennial to 2 meters o Native to Europe and Asia o Part used: root o Medicinal purpose Ulcers upper-respiratory tract congestion o Cautions High blood pressure Heart disease Pregnancy Licorice and Ulcers o Protects the walls of the gut by increasing production of protective mucous Appears to also reduce inflammation o Glycyrrhizic acid is an important component 50 times sweeter than table sugar saponin glycoside o serious side effects fluid retention hypertension muscle weakness uterine contractions o can use deglycyrrhizinated licorice to avoid side effects (which are problems because of the history of heart disease and ulcers) but it may not be effected Cold and Flu o Adults get an average of 4 colds per year o No cure Colds and flu are viral respiratory infections antibiotics are useless against them although they can help if secondary bacterial infections are present Doctors prescribe antibiotics to 60% of patients that suffer from colds and flu Herbal medicines can be used to strengthen the immune system to reduce the frequency and duration of colds and flu Echinacea, E. purpurea, E. angustifolia o Sunflower family o Herbaceous perennial o Part used Root Above-ground parts o Medicinal purpose Colds and flu Immune system stimulant o Caution Allergic reaction Should not be used continuously for more than a few weeks o Believed to increase the production of anti-viral substances such as interferon and to enhance the ability of immune cells to engulf microbes Target ailments include colds and flu, chronic infections (respiratory, urinary), and allergies or asthma o The World Health Organization supports the use of Echinacea as well as many experimental studies o If you put an Echinacea extract in a test tube with bacteria, nothing happens – there is no direct antimicrobial activity works by stimulating the immune system immunomodulatory o clinical trial more than 400 students participated treated with Echinacea then challenged with rhinovirus o virus causes 30-50% of common colds isolated in hotel rooms for 5 days for observation researchers tracked cold symptoms sneezing coughing nasal secretions serum antibodies found no significant difference between Echinacea and placebo Echinacea defenders say that the dose was too low, the participants were all young, and only one virus was tested Goldenseal, Hydrastis Canadensis o Herbaceous perennial o Native to eastern United States o Part used Rhizome and roots o Medicinal purpose Cold and flu Astringent Antibacterial o Caution Heart disease Pregnancy o Berberine is a bright yellow alkaloid used for its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects o Astringent Causes the contraction or constriction of tissues Goldenseal dries up secretions of mucous membranes Berberine can depress heart functions and may stimulate uterus Goldenseal does not mask morphine Astragalus (Milk Vetch), Astragalus membranaceus o Pea family o Herbaceous perennial o Native to Asia (northern china specifically) o Part used Root o Medicinal purpose Colds and flu Chronic fatigue AIDS Cancer o Caution Pregnancy Tissue rejection o Traditional Asian equivalent to Echinacea Used for immune-enhancing properties Appears to stimulate the branch of the immune system that is involved in tissue rejection, so should be avoided during pregnancy or following organ transplants or skin grafts Some studies suggest patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy recover faster and live longer if Astragalusis given concurrently Garlic, Allium sativum o Lily family o Herbaceous perennial o Probably Asian, now a variable cultigen o Part used Bulb o Medicinal purpose Colds and flu Lowers blood pressure and cholesterol antiseptic o caution anti-coagulant heartburn o biochemical cascade ALLIIN is an odorless sulfur-containing amino acid derivative found in intact cells When cells are ruptured the enzyme ALLIINASE is released; it converts ALLIIN to ALLICIN ALLICIN is the active component and it releases the strong odor of garlic the more finely you chop, the more alliin reacts with the alliinase —and the more potent Cooking mellows garlic because it deactivates alliinase; that is why roasted garlic has a much more delicate flavor
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