New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PBIO3440: Metabolites and Herb Cabinet

by: Brittany Ariana Borzillo

PBIO3440: Metabolites and Herb Cabinet PBIO 3440

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Plant Biology > PBIO 3440 > PBIO3440 Metabolites and Herb Cabinet
Brittany Ariana Borzillo
GPA 3.7

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

class notes -- first set of notes that will be on the second test
Medicinal Herbs Spices and Plants
Class Notes
plant, Biology
25 ?




Popular in Medicinal Herbs Spices and Plants

Popular in Plant Biology

This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PBIO 3440 at University of Georgia taught by Affolter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Medicinal Herbs Spices and Plants in Plant Biology at University of Georgia.


Reviews for PBIO3440: Metabolites and Herb Cabinet


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/23/16
METABOLITES AND HERB CABINET PRIMARY VS SECONDARY METABOLITES  Frankle (1953) o Determined why plants have secondary metabolites  Ecological reason  Pollination  Deter herbivores from eating them  Battling bacteria and fungus  Toxic to other plants  Black walnuts  Primary Metabolites o Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids  essential to life o occur in the major metabolic pathways of plants  respiration, photosynthesis, cell division  Secondary Metabolites o other compounds produced via other metabolic pathways o serve diverse functions in plants o often the source of a plant’s medicinal or culinary value o many plant toxins also belong to this group o ecological importance  Attracting pollinators and fruit dispersers  Inhibiting bacterial and fungal pathogens  Deterring grazing animals and herbivorous insects  Inhibiting the growth of competing plants o Terpenes  Hydrocarbons: compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen  Range greatly in size and structure  Essential Oils  Provide the flavor and aroma of many herbs and spices  provide scents used in perfumes and incense  Resins  Sticky/sappy  Comes from trees  Used in the production of pharmaceuticals, varnishes, rosin, insecticides, chewing gum, turpentine, perfumes, and oil-based paints  Polyterpenes  Made up of smaller subunits that arrange into a long chain  Generally elastic because the long chains make it fluid/flexible o natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis, the Rubber Tree  Taxol  terpene obtained from the Pacific Yew  anticancer  Carotenoid Pigment  the red, orange, and yellow pigments found in plants  usually classified as primary metabolites o aids in photosynthesis o Phenolics  All contain one or more aromatic benzene rings (a ring of 6 carbon atoms with 6 hydrogen atoms attached) with one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups  Large and diverse category of compounds  Many different sized and structures  Browning of an apple caused be the interaction of phenolic compounds and air  Flavonoids  Includes water-soluble pigments known as anthocyanins  found in red cabbage and many flower petals  antioxidants  Tannins  Utilized as stains, dyes, inks, and tanning agents for leather  Believed to function in plants by discouraging herbivores  Important flavor compounds in tea, red wine, and many fruits  Astringents  Prevent decompositions by binding to proteins  Good for digestion  Lignin  Lignin is actually a primary metabolite found in the cell wall of many plants  Lignin gives wood its hardness and strength  Composed of thousands of phenolic molecules o Urushiol  contact poison in Poison Ivy and Poison Oak that causes the itchy, blistering rash o Tetrahydrocannabinol  a phenolic resin  the active ingredient in marijuana o Glycosides  Compounds containing a sugar (often glucose) with a non-sugar molecule  When these compounds are metabolized by animals, the sugar splits off and the non-sugar component becomes physiologically active  non-sugar component is typically a terpene, steroid (a type of lipid), or phenolic compound  Saponins  Combination of a sugar and a steroid  Form a soapy lather when mixed with water o used in detergents and shampoos  Bitter-tasting, cause gastric upsets  Yams o the source of steroids used in the manufacture of human sex hormones and cortisone o vines that produce large tubers that are rich in starch, with some additional protein o 10 species of Dioscorea (Yams) are important food crops in the tropics o Early research on the development of the birth control pill was based on diosgenin extracted from Yams and shown to inhibit ovulation  Cardiac Glycosides  The active portion of the molecule is similar to a steroid  Cardiac glycosides affect the heartbeat  Fatal if consumed in large doses  Digitoxin from Foxglove is an important medicine for congestive heart failure  Cyanogenic Glycosides  release deadly hydrogen cyanide (HCN) when metabolized  Cassavais o the sixth most important food crop in the world o its edible tubers can cause death by cyanide poisoning if they are not processed to remove the toxins  by soaking, boiling, fermenting, and other methods o Alkaloids  Nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites that are synthesized from various amino acids  Known for their effects on mammalian physiology, especially the central nervous system  Many are similar to neurotransmitters found in the brain, and most are considered psychoactive  Some alkaloids are stimulants  caffeine, cocaine, and ephedrine  Some alkaloids are depressants  morphine and codeine  some alkaloids are hallucinogenic  mescaline, the tropane alkaloids, and ergot alkaloids  In high doses, many alkaloids are deadly poisons  sulphur-containing compounds  release of volatile sulphur-containing compounds when cells are damaged is the reason we value many plants in the Mustard and Onion families  Isothiocyanates  substrate compound and the enzyme are stored in different compartments within the cell o when cells are broken or crushed the substrate and enzyme are brought into contact and they react, producing the spicy flavor compound  lacrimatory factor o crying factor HERB CABINET, PART 1  CASE STUDY: GINGER FOR USE IN MOTION SICKNESS o A female patient in her mid-twenties has been examining the herbals section of the community pharmacy in which you serve as an intern. She approaches you with a bottle of ginger in her hands. She says that she is driving to San Francisco from Omaha and suffers from motion sickness. She has used dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) in the past to control her motion sickness, but it makes her drowsy, and since she is going to share the driving responsibilities with her room-mate, she does not want to use it. She has read that ginger can be used to control the nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness. She asks you if that is true, should she use ginger, and what are the side effects? What do you tell her?  Ginger, Zingiber officinale o Herbaceous perennial o Native to Asia o grown throughout tropics o Part used: rhizome o Medicinal Purposes: Nausea, motion sickness, indigestion o Cautions: anti-coagulant drugs (ginger thins blood)  Medical Trials o Typically used in allopathic medicine o Western mainstream o Staple for determining safety and whether the thing works o Methods  Placebo controlled  Can’t tell it apart from actual thing but has no physiological impact  Double-blind  Clinician and participant don’t know who’s getting what  Cross over  All participants get both the placebo and thing being tested  Wash out period o Between two trials o Period where nobody is taking anything  Statistical design o Random assignment  Ginger’s trial o 36 participants o strap someone in chair which would changes directions for 6 minutes or until you vomit o Dramamine  Treats central nervous system  Causes drowsiness  Average time in chair  1.5 minutes o Placebo  Average time in chair  3.5 minutes o Ginger  Works directly on GI tract  About half of participants made it the entire 6 minutes  Average time in chair  5.5 minutes  Medicinal Plants for Motion Sickness o Valerian o Catnip o Black horehound o Licorice root o Peppermint o Chamomile  Peppermint o Mentha x piperita o Mint Family o Herbaceous perennial o Native to Europe o leaf contains menthol o hybrid of spearmint and watermint o medicinal use  nausea, indigestion, flatulence, GI spasms o caution  do not ingest essential oil  can cause infants and children to choke  because of the menthol o essential oil  principal components include menthol and menthone  very important as a commercial flavoring  cultivated on a large scale  pure essential oil is very potent  can be lethal if ingested  tea is a better option  relaxes the lower esophageal sphincter  avoid if suffering from acid reflux  Chamomile, Matricaria recutita o Sunflower family o Aromatic annual o Native to western Asia o Flower contains medicinal proterties o Medicinal use  Nausea  indigestion  Insomnia  Tea is a mild sedative  anti-inflammatory  antiseptic  Relieves gas  Calms intestinal spasms  Soothes GI tract  Used topically for blisters and acne  Wound-healing  Moisten tea bag and hold against skin o Caution  Contact dermatitis  Pollen allergy o Tea is a mild sedative  Psyllium, Plantago spp. o Plantain family o Annual o Native to Mediterranean region o Seeds and husk  turned into powder  seed husk absorb water and swell in size  produces a jelly-like mucilage  mucilage soothes lining of gut o Medicinal use  Constipation  Diarrhea  hemorrhoids o Caution  Relatively safe bulk laxative o Unaffected by bacteria  Purgatives and Cathartics o Purging has been a popular practice at various times in human history  Egyptians thought all diseases came from food  Mixed beer with caster oil and purged every few months  London apothecaries encouraged purging every fortnight (two weeks) in their shops  Today, laxative abuse is one of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa o Laxatives  Bulk-forming laxatives  not digested but absorb liquid in the intestines and swell to form a soft, bulky mass  bowel is then stimulated normally by the presence of the bulky mass  Stimulant laxatives  increase the waves of contraction in the intestinal muscles (peristalsis) because of the secondary plant products they contain  harsher than bulk-forming laxatives and should only be used occasionally  demulcent  a substance, often rich in mucilage, that can soothe and protect inflamed or irritated internal tissues  Senna, Cassia senna o Pea family o Perennial shrub o Native to tropical africa o Part used  Fruit pods  Leaves  Stronger o Medicinal purpose  Constipation  Stimulant laxative o Caution  Can cause cramps and diarrhea  Do not give to children o Secondary compounds  Anthraquinones called sennosides  Cause water to flow into the colon instead of out  Stimulate more forceful contractions of the colon  activated by the natural bacteria found in the colon  bacteria liberate the active compounds from attached sugars –another example of a glycoside  Aloe vera, A. barbadensis o Perennial with succulent leaves o Native to Africa o Part used  Leaves  Gel o Polysaccharides keep wounds moist by absorbing water like a sponge o Recruits white blood cells to repair and defend tissues o Promotes formation of new capillaries o Inhibits formation of free radicals o Can inhibit formation of more painful prostaglandin molecules  Juice o Juice made commercially from the gel in the interior of the leaf  Taken internally for peptic ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome o Medicinal purpose  Burns and scrapes  Constipation  Ulcers o Caution  Don’t use if intestines are obstructed or inflamed (colitis) o Anthraquinone compounds are obtained from dried yellow latex in leaves, stored just below the epidermis  Extremely potent laxative effect o Cleansing, soothing, and healing effect  CASE STUDY: LICORICE FOR TREATMENT OF PEPTIC ULCERS o A 58-year-old male patient has been recently diagnosed with congestive heart failure and he has been placed on a digitalis preparation. In the course of taking a patient history, you note that he has been previously diagnosed with a peptic ulcer. You ask if he is taking any medications, OTC or herbal, for this. After some discussion, he reveals that he has been told by friends that licorice is useful in calming the stomach and for helping prevent ulcers, so he has been ingesting it regularly. What advice do you give this patient?  Peptic Ulcers o Perforations in lining of upper GI tract o About 10% of Americans suffer from ulcers at some point in life o Previously the problem was blamed on excess stomach acid due to stress, diet, etc. o Now known that bacterial infections are present in most ulcers and antibiotics are often prescribed o Ibuprofen and aspirin also promote ulcers  Licorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra o Woody-stemmed perennial to 2 meters o Native to Europe and Asia o Part used: root o Medicinal purpose  Ulcers  upper-respiratory tract congestion o Cautions  High blood pressure  Heart disease  Pregnancy  Licorice and Ulcers o Protects the walls of the gut by increasing production of protective mucous  Appears to also reduce inflammation o Glycyrrhizic acid is an important component  50 times sweeter than table sugar  saponin glycoside o serious side effects  fluid retention  hypertension  muscle weakness  uterine contractions o can use deglycyrrhizinated licorice to avoid side effects (which are problems because of the history of heart disease and ulcers) but it may not be effected  Cold and Flu o Adults get an average of 4 colds per year o No cure  Colds and flu are viral respiratory infections  antibiotics are useless against them  although they can help if secondary bacterial infections are present  Doctors prescribe antibiotics to 60% of patients that suffer from colds and flu  Herbal medicines can be used to strengthen the immune system to reduce the frequency and duration of colds and flu  Echinacea, E. purpurea, E. angustifolia o Sunflower family o Herbaceous perennial o Part used  Root  Above-ground parts o Medicinal purpose  Colds and flu  Immune system stimulant o Caution  Allergic reaction  Should not be used continuously for more than a few weeks o Believed to increase the production of anti-viral substances such as interferon and to enhance the ability of immune cells to engulf microbes  Target ailments include colds and flu, chronic infections (respiratory, urinary), and allergies or asthma o The World Health Organization supports the use of Echinacea as well as many experimental studies o If you put an Echinacea extract in a test tube with bacteria, nothing happens – there is no direct antimicrobial activity  works by stimulating the immune system  immunomodulatory o clinical trial  more than 400 students participated  treated with Echinacea then challenged with rhinovirus o virus causes 30-50% of common colds  isolated in hotel rooms for 5 days for observation  researchers tracked cold symptoms  sneezing  coughing  nasal secretions  serum antibodies  found no significant difference between Echinacea and placebo  Echinacea defenders say that the dose was too low, the participants were all young, and only one virus was tested  Goldenseal, Hydrastis Canadensis o Herbaceous perennial o Native to eastern United States o Part used  Rhizome and roots o Medicinal purpose  Cold and flu  Astringent  Antibacterial o Caution  Heart disease  Pregnancy o Berberine is a bright yellow alkaloid used for its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects o Astringent  Causes the contraction or constriction of tissues  Goldenseal dries up secretions of mucous membranes  Berberine can depress heart functions and may stimulate uterus  Goldenseal does not mask morphine  Astragalus (Milk Vetch), Astragalus membranaceus o Pea family o Herbaceous perennial o Native to Asia (northern china specifically) o Part used  Root o Medicinal purpose  Colds and flu  Chronic fatigue  AIDS  Cancer o Caution  Pregnancy  Tissue rejection o Traditional Asian equivalent to Echinacea  Used for immune-enhancing properties  Appears to stimulate the branch of the immune system that is involved in tissue rejection, so should be avoided during pregnancy or following organ transplants or skin grafts  Some studies suggest patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy recover faster and live longer if Astragalusis given concurrently  Garlic, Allium sativum o Lily family o Herbaceous perennial o Probably Asian, now a variable cultigen o Part used  Bulb o Medicinal purpose  Colds and flu  Lowers blood pressure and cholesterol  antiseptic o caution  anti-coagulant  heartburn o biochemical cascade  ALLIIN is an odorless sulfur-containing amino acid derivative found in intact cells  When cells are ruptured the enzyme ALLIINASE is released; it converts ALLIIN to ALLICIN  ALLICIN is the active component and it releases the strong odor of garlic  the more finely you chop, the more alliin reacts with the alliinase —and the more potent  Cooking mellows garlic because it deactivates alliinase; that is why roasted garlic has a much more delicate flavor


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.