Memory Psychology 202
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaylee Olson on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 202 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Caton Roberts in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Introduction to Memory Processes Re: “Murder” Sacks Case Study Did he really have “blackout”? Organic Amnesia (What’s real diagnosis & problem) STM to LTM Blackout=No Memory (EVER) *Lecture stream on Thursday From Learning to Memory: Learning and Social Adaptation Depend on our Memory Capacities – When learning occurs, memories (specific types of knowledge seen in different patterns of motor, emotional, and verbal behavior) are established – There is no learning without memory – When memories are destroyed, what was learned is altered fundamentally Videoclip Segment from Zimbardo’s “Discovering Psychology” PBS series: Physical reality of Memory: Memories make lasting alterations in structure and function of Central Nervous System. Psychologists have called these physical traces of memory “Engrams”. 3 Types of Engrams or memory traces : 1) Procedural Knowledge or Memory (what you know how to do in behavior) ; 2) Semantic or Declarative Knowledge or Memory (what you know, as verbally represented); 3) Episodic Memory (recollection of experiences, (stories, another type of verbal or declarative knowledge process) Engrams determine your personal perspective on life. Where exactly are our memories, our “engrams”? Karl Lashley trained rats to learn mazes, then removed increasingly large areas of cortex. His Conclusion: memory is not localized in any specific area of brain (implication: memories are distributed across areas of cortex). Zimbardo suggests perhaps Lashley was correct about the location of complex memories but the conclusion may not apply to simple memories. Experiment on specific location of one classically conditioned “memory” Richard Thompson’s work with rabbits suggests simple memories may be localized rather precisely. He maps the electrical activity of nerve cells that relate to an actual learned behavior as demonstrated in a particular classical conditioning process: Puff of air: unconditioned stimulus, do not have to learn to respond to it Conditioned response is a learned response (Tone) After training, the rabbit learns to blink after the tone (They are conditioned!) in preparation for the puff He puts a lesion in the Cerebellum interpositus nucleus Memory is gone after this Diagram the classical conditioning (stimulus substitution) process in Thompson’s experiment: What is the: UCS, UCR, CS, CR? UCS: Unconditioned Stimulus: Air UCR: Unconditioned Response: Blink CS: Conditioned Stimulus: Tone CR: Conditioned Response: Blink? Where is the memory for this particular CR located in the brain? Thompson’s A: Interpositis nucleus, a cubic millimenter of tissue in the cerebellum. After surgery, the memory for the learned response is completely obliterated; all that is left is the reflex response (which is what?), the same reponse shown before learning ; destroying that tissue permanently abolished the memory for the learned response Could the animal learn that CR again? Why or why not? More on the “Engram”: Engram is the historical term for the elusive “physical trace” of memory (LTM) Longterm memory Anatomy: In Thompson’s experiment the memory for the conditioned response was located interpositus nucleus cerebellum (where?) In human verbal/conscious learning, the hippocampus is central to formation of EXPLICIT MEMORY; storage is in more distributed neural networks Role of Synapses: Denser and more numerous with enriched environments and opportunities for learning More connections Neurotransmitters: Unknown specific roles, but Ach, DA, 5HT, NE all involved (see past notes if abbreviations unfamiliar) Jimmy and Mr. Thompson Korsekov’s Disease Chronic alcoholism Destruction of the brain Can no longer learn new information: Anterograde Amnesia o Lacking biological components Cells in the brain adjacent to hippocampus: mammillary bodies (neurons) get info to the hippocampus Excessive drinking causes a vitamin deficiency (Thiamine) Mammillary bodies are destroyed Thompson made stuff up because he was anxious (Confabulation) Brain Development, Learning and Memory: Videoclip Videoclip: William Greenough’s Lab at Univ. IllinoisUrbana Thesis: Brain Development Continues Through the Lifespan What does Dr. Greenough say was the old psychobiological assumption or “conventional wisdom” about the development of the brain? The idea that brain development is stable until connections are lost in age What has been learned more recently; what is the new view? The brain continues to be a dynamic place through time Describe/explain Greenough’s first experiment Enriched Environment with rats: allowed for learning with new toys each day Control group: standard lab cage, no toys, impoverished Animals in the enriched environment developed more dendrites More synapsis space between neurons What was the IV and its levels? What 4 different DV’s can be described? – 1) Dendrites 2) Synapsis In previous presentations of his work, Greenough has said: Adding synapses adds “residue of experience” “The wiring diagram of the brain is a function of its incorporated history” 2,000 more synapses per neuron for rats in enriched environments compared to controls Here, he says the “wiring diagram was actually embellished” for animals in the enriched environments compared to 3)Blood supply delivering oxygen and sugar to neurons, more capillaries, brain is critically dependent because it cannot store these 4)Glial Cells extract oxygen and sugar from blood to deliver to neurons Describe/explain Greenough’s second experiment: Separated exercise from learning Animals that had the opportunity to exercise had no real change in connections Animals in learning environment had no change in blood supply What was the IV? What did the 2 different groups of animals DO differently? Exercise: blood supply Learning: synapsis, dendrite, glial cells What results/general conclusions did Greenough describe from this experiment? The Prevailing Model: Memory as Information Processing We only remember stimulation that enters our sensory memory processes if it: 1) receives attention in conscious experiencing of one or more sensory modalities 2) is held and maintained in STM (working memory) 3) is encoded and stored in LTM; (Encoding, transfer, consolidation) 4) can be retrieved from LTM with appropriate cues Forgetting can occur at each level Three Types of Memory in Above Model Sensory Short Term Long Term 1. Sensory Memory Sensory Memory stores a brief copy (< 3 seconds) of stimuli that register during sensory processing (product of transduction) – Iconic Memory is a transduced/encoded visual snapshot or “icon” and lasts < 1 second George Sperling on exam – Echoic Memory seems to last for at least several seconds 2. Short Term Memory (STM); AKA Working Memory STM requires attention, and has limited capacity STM stores 7 (+/2) noticed items for up to 30 seconds (longer with “rote” or “maintenance” rehearsal). Chunking increases STM capacity; experts “chunk,” bits of information, as do successful learners at all levels; Chunking facilitates encoding and transfer to LTM (facilitates “consolidation” of information in STM into LTM) Serial position effect/curve: People remember the beginning and end better than the middle of a list 3. Long Term Memory (LTM): Our Enduring Recollection of Recent and Remote Past Types of LTM’s: Explicit/Declarative Implicit/Nondeclarative Explicit or Declarative LTM’s Explicit Memories are accessible to consciousness; we can talk about them (they can be “declared” consciously). Includes: episodic memory of one’s own specific past experiences and major epidodes of knowledge from world around ("flashbulb memories ex. 9/11") Clive cannot form NEW memories semantic memory of facts and general declarative knowledge Examples of measuring explicit memory: recollection of facts/events consciously retrieved in response to direct questions (recall VS. recognition tests) Recognition is easier One example: Name the Seven Dwarfs from Snow White (recall: 69% accuracy) Vs. selection of names from list (recognition: 86% accuracy) Encoding of Explicit LTM’s Elaborative rehearsal needed to create meaningful “chunks” and “hierarchies” Must go beyond rote rehearsal/maintenance rehearsal to “deeper” processing (meaning and selfrelevance) Not engaging in elaborative rehearsal is the mistake of many students in one type of studying where the student over engages in rote review of notes and highlighting in books Leads to students thinking they’re ready for the exam when they’re not In elaborative rehearsal, you create a rich “semantic network” (see below) built on cues you have created yourself Craik and Tulving (1975) Experiment: list of words presented, one at a time, followed by one of 3 mental tasks: ▯ 1) visual judgment:10% ▯ 2) acoustic judgment:50% ▯ or 3) semantic (defining/meaning) judgment:80% results in later recognition memory task: 10% Vs. 50% Vs. 80% accuracy, respectively conclusion: the more thought (meaningful, conscious associations) required to “process” the words, the easier they were to recognize later Semantic Organization of Explicit LTM: Semantic Networks of Related Concepts In semantic networks, the activation of one concept (mental grouping of items that share common properties) leads to priming of semantically related concepts, making their subsequent retrieval more probable Tree organization of concepts thinking of one thing makes you think of another Moral of above vis a vis learning tasks? (e.g.., your next major exam in college?) Don’t make the mistake of relying on rote/maintenance rehearsal. Instead: – Consolidate knowledge by organizing it into semantic networks (focus on encoding meaning) – Use elaborative rehearsal to build your networks – Utilize “chunking” and “hierarchies” or “concept maps” to assist the elaborative rehearsal process “Reconstructive” Nature of Explicit LTM’s research by Elizabeth Loftus (next slide graphic) and others shows the effects of language and external priming on the reconstructive nature of memory. Reconstructive Nature of LTM “The past is malleable and flexible, constantly changing as our recollection reinterprets and reexplains what has happened” (Peter Berger, Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective, 1963) Study of changing verbs and the effect on the answer False memories During original encoding of memory, we store fragments of information; later, when trying to recall, we retrieve the fragments and “fill in the gaps” with logic and other “knowledge” derived from stereotypes, schemas and scripts Most of the time, people remember abuse Memories falsely created by therapist False confession Explicit Memory Construction is a source of distortion, however adaptive Implicit or Nondeclarative LTM’s Implicit Memories are not directly accessible to consciousness (they are nondeclarative, unconscious). Includes: procedural memory (motor skills, habits, tacit rules) Learning how to do stuff. Ex. Having a conversation classical conditioning effects (emotional learning) Blinking under certain conditions Examples of measuring implicit memory: nonconscious retention measured by indirect effects on performance You don’t know you’re remembering it (Ex. Shaking hands, pin) One example: Claparede’s clinical study—hidden pin—with Korsakoff’s patient, (1911) (compare Jimmy, Mr. Thompson, and the below case of “Clive”) Patients with temporal lobe amnesia involving hippocampal damage, or loss of connections from hippocampus to adjacent structures, still show essentially normal implicit memory function. E.G.: If CC’d to show eyeblink responses to a CS, they show the CR just as strongly in subsequent tests as do nonamnesic subjects Learn it just as quickly as people with the brain damage (Implicit works, explicit does not) If given practice with new motor skill (e.g.., tracing a pattern in a mirror), they show normal improvement from session to session People with hippocampal damage would got better at the task without knowing they have been practicing They show emotional conditioning effects similar to normal subjects Video Clip: Clive’s World Clive’s “viral encephalitis” resulted in damage to what 2 areas of his brain (which are important why, as described in lecture)? 1)Left and right temporal lobes 2)Frontal lobes Your Task: Identify what specific types of memory strength and memory impairment does Clive demonstrate? He lives in the moment, moment to moment consciousness Everything before is void Awakening, refreshed every time Thinks he’s been awake for 2 minutes Doesn’t think previous entries in diary are relevant, they were made unconsciously He still loves Deborah Hippocampus was destroyed and he could no longer encode short term into long term. Anterograde amnesia: ability to form new memories (homework/classwork exercise: for each type of memory process reviewed in these lecture notes, specify whether the function is intact or disturbed in Clive) Take notes about what is discussed as we look at, stop, and discuss the video: Korsakov’s history of abusive alcohol use Nutritional deficiency, thiamine is needed for brain to function Destroys mammillary bodies (group of cells linked up to hippocampus) Information does not make it to the hippocampus Anterograde amnesia no new explicit LTM Sack’s Cases: Class Discussion/Review Mr. Thompson (12. A Matter of Identity) Very agitated, anxious Confabulation make stuff up To cope with anxiety Mrs. O’C and Mrs. O’M.(15. Reminiscence) What was happening? Musical Epilepsy, seizures in areas of the brain associated with music EEG: Electro Encephalogram When they were hearing songs, there was seizing of temporal lobe brain cells (Musical epilepsy) O’C liked the music Donald (19. Murder) PCPhallucinogen Committed a murder Organic amnesiablackout (Incorrect diagnosis), retrieval error instead No transfer encoding or consolidation Couldn’t remember the murder until head trauma Repression took painful to remember Exam? He had an encoding failure and he could not recall the event
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