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Cellular Respiration Notes

by: locnaschek

Cellular Respiration Notes BIOL 1406 02

Marketplace > Lamar University > Biology > BIOL 1406 02 > Cellular Respiration Notes
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About this Document

These notes cover the process of cellular respiration, especially the production of ATP.
General Biology I (Majors)
Dr. Randall Terry
Class Notes
Biology, cellular biology, cells, Cellular Respiration, ATP
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by locnaschek on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1406 02 at Lamar University taught by Dr. Randall Terry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Biology I (Majors) in Biology at Lamar University.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
Cellular Respiration These notes will answer the question: where does ATP come from?  Cellular respiration is the metabolic process by which energy present in organic  molecules is converted to ATP (and by­products)  The equation for cellular respiration: Organic molecule + O2  ATP + CO  2 H O2+ heat  Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondrion o The inner membrane is folded to increase surface area  ATP is produced in two ways: o Substrate Level Phosphorylation (produces 4 ATP)  Uses molecular rearrangement o Oxidative Phosphorylation (produces 34 ATP)  Uses Electron Transport Chains o Each glucose molecule produces 38 ATP through these processes  Substrate Level o Breaks bonds and forms new bonds o Exergonic (loses energy)  Can produce ATP from ADP o Not used often, does not produce much  Oxidation Phosphorylation o Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor o Proteins of the electron transport chain are increasingly electronegative o Use redox reactions, each is first reduced then oxidized as it gains then loses the  electrons as it goes down the chain o Electrons are not donated directly to the chain, NADH and FADH  give electrons 2  Carbon bonds donate 2 electrons to NADH and FADH  when2broken o Energy is released through protons and is used to create ATP o Goal of Electron Transport Chain is to take energy from an organic molecule and  convert it to ATP  Glucose comes from the sun  Each glucose produces about 38 ATP through four biochemical processes: o Glycolysis o Conversion to Acetyl Co­A o Krebs Cycle o Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation   Glycolysis o Glucose converted to two pyruvate molecules o Occurs in the cytoplasm o “Glucose splitting” o Does not require oxygen o Produces 2 net ATP and 2 NADH o Requires 2 ATP to overcome the energy of activation and provides 4 so it  produces a net gain of 2  Conversion and Krebs (work together) o Occurs in the matrix o Bond broken when pyruvate is brought into mitochondrion  Goes from 3C to 2C then combines with a 4C to form a 6C and then  produces NADH and becomes 5C, etc.  Each pyruvate produces 4 NADH (8 per glucose)  Each pyruvate produces 1 ATP (2 per glucose)  Each pyruvate produces 1 FADH (22 er glucose) o *Pay attention to pyruvate vs. glucose production* o 1 NADH= 3 ATP o 1 FADH = 2 2TP o Acetyl Co­A is intertwined with the Krebs Cycle o Of the 38 ATP produced…  30 is from NADH (10 NADH x 3 ATP each)  4 is from FADH  22 FADH x 2 ATP each)  4 is regular ATP (2 hydrolysis, 1 per pyruvate in Acetyl/ Krebs)  Oxidative Phosphorylation o Occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion o Proteins of the ETC are in 3 groups  NADH Dehydrogenase  Releases 4H  (2 proteins transport the protons)  Cytochrome b Complex +  Releases 6H  (3 proteins transport the protons)  Cytochrome Oxidase Complex +  Releases 2H  (1 protein transports the protons) o 12 protons are pumped  4 protons= 1 ATP (3 ATP per NADH)  FADH  starts electrons at the 2  group (=8 protons =2 ATP per FADH ) 2 2 o Protons are pumped from the matrix to the intermembrane space  ATP synthase (Mitochondrial lollipop) o Head of the lollipop points into the membrane o Protons flow quickly into the stalk because opposite charges attract o Bottom part rotates, picking up ADP and P to ireate ATP o Uses motion as energy (motion provided by protons) o Dr. Terry gave an example: there is a plexiglass wall with one side full of water  (protons), plexiglass (staircase of electron transport chain) divides the side with  water from none, if there is a hole (stalk of synthase) water (H ) gushes out more  controlled and gives energy to turn a wheel (the bottom of the synthase) and crush cornmeal to make pancakes (ADP + P = ATP) i o Protomotive Force= concentration gradient + charge separation o Oxidative Phosphorylation= ETC + Chemiosmosis  What if there is no O ? 2 o Anaerobic catabolism  Converted to ethanol or lactose  Occurs in the cytoplasm  Only produces 2 ATP total per glucose  Also called fermentation


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