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Chapter 4: Soul Music

by: Lexi Stutzman

Chapter 4: Soul Music Munm 287 section 002

Lexi Stutzman

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Chapter 4 Notes
History of Rock Music
Dr. Garrett Hope
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lexi Stutzman on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Munm 287 section 002 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Garrett Hope in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 110 views.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
Chapter 4  Soul Music  The Origins of Soul   The First Soul Record  ○ Merging R&B gospel:secular with the sacred, considered taboo  ● 1954: Ray Charles transforms “I Got a Savior, Way Over Jordan” into “I Got a  Woman,” created blueprint for soul  Music Cut 16: “I Got a Woman”  Soul and the Civil Rights Movement  ● 1954: ​Brown vs. Board of Education of Top​eka, Kansas kick starts the Civil  Rights Movement  ● 1964­68: zenith of Civil Rights Movement; goes into decline after assassination  of Dr. Martin Luther King. Jr.  ● The rise of soul   The First Important Soul Artists  Ray Charles  ● 1954: signs by ​ erry Wexler​ to Atlantic  ● Records “I Got a Woman”, other hymns in secular fashion “This Little Girl of Mine  based” on “This Little Light of Mine”  ○ 1959: What’d I Say (video)  ● 1960: signs with ABC #1 hits follow  ● Later merges soul and country  ○ “I Can’t Stop Loving You” (video)  James Brown  ○ Soul innovator, influential to funk, hip hop  ○ “The Godfather of Soul” “THe Hardest Working Man in Show Business”  ○ Impoverished youth; prison at 16; focuses on music  ○ 1956: JB and the Flames sign with King, first hit:  ■ Please, Please Please, 1956  ○ Late 1950s: develops dynamic stage show with tight band and exciting  persona  ○ Top 40 R&B hits follow  ● 1962: Live at the Apollo establishes Brown as soul innovator  ● 1965:2 top 10 singles:  ○ “Papa’s Got a Brand New Bag Part 1”  ○ “I Got You” (I Feel Good)  Music cut 17 “Cold Sweat (#7 1967)  ● Minimalism  ● Late 1960s/early 1970s: becomes a spokesman for the black community  ○ 4/5/68: diffuses tense situation at Boston Garden after assassination of Dr.  Martin Luther King, Jr.  ○ 1968: “Say It Loud, I’m Black and I’m Proud”  Sam Cooke  ○ Born Mississippi Delta, son of a preacher  ○ 1950: joins popular gospel group Soul Stirrers, develops fan base, easy  going charm, crooning style   ● 1956 “crosses over” as Dale Cook  ● Playlist: “You Send Me” 1957 (#1)  ● Early 1960s: begins building business empire  ● “Twistin’ the Night Away”  ● 12/11/64: tragic murder in LA  ● “A Change is Gonna Come” inspired by Bob Dylan’s “Blowin’ in the Wind”  released posthumously(after death) in 1964  Motown  Hitsville U.S.A  ● Motown  ○ Formed 1959 by ​Berry Gordy  ○ Offices in house on West Grand Blvd, Detroit; “Hitsville USA”  ○ Gordy sets up production teams (Smokey Robinson, others), publishing  co., record label, etc  ○ “Money” by Barrett Strong; Gordy’s first hit  ○ Funk Brothers was the nickname for a Motown music band.  The Assembly Line   ● Motown  ○ Tightly controlled family business  ○ Weekly production meetings, competitive environment  ○ Nurturing of artists  ● Assembly line production  ○ Finishing school  ○ Choreography  ○ Stage presence  ○ In house production  ○ Record distribution  ○ in ­house talent agency  ● 1964­67: 14 #1 hit records  Important Motown Artists  ○ Playlist: “Tracks of my Tears” Smokey Robinson and the Miracles (#4  1967); falsetto  ○ Playlist: “Mr. Postman” The Marvelettes (#1 1961)  ○ Playlist: “Fingertips Pt 2” Stevie Wonder (#1 1963)  ○ Playlist: “Reach Out (I’ll Be There)” The Four Tops (#1 1966)  Music Cut:18”Where Did Our Love Go” The Supremes  Stax Records  Back to Memphis  ● Memphis, late 1950s: although a racially segregated city, an open, “transracial”  attitude exist  ● 1957: Jim Stewart starts Satellite Records in garage  ● 1958: sister Estelle Axton becomes Jim’s partner  Stax Is Born  ● 1960: Stax Records is born  ○ Move into Capitol Theatre on East McLemore Ave.   ○ 1960:”Cause I Love You” by Rufus and Carla thomas catches attention of  Atlantic’s Jerry Wexler  ○ 1961: “Last Night” the Royal Spades (#3)  ○ 1962: Green Onions” Booker T. and the MGs (#3)  ● Booker T. and the MGs become Stax in house rhythm section, establish Stax  sound  The Stax Sound  ● Characteristics of the Stax Sound  ○ Raw, Gritty, powerful, emotional  ○ Bare bones instrumentation of bass, drums, guitar, piano or organ, horn  section  ○ Very tight yet uncluttered groove  ○ Horns play punchy unison lines and chords   ○ Generally, no vocal harmonies or BGVs  Soulsville, USA  ● Early 1960s:  ○ Stax grows quickly, focus on soul music  ○ In house producers include Isaac Hayes, David Porter  ○ live , spontaneous sessions;songs often composed and arranged on the  spot  ○ Stax sound is punchy tight emotional; not overly produced  ● Playlist: “Hold on, I’m Coming” Sam and Dave  Important Stax Artists  ● “Green Onions” Booker T. and the MGs (#3 1962)  ● “(Sittin’ On) The Dock of the Bay” Otis Redding (#1 1967)  ● “In the Midnight  Hour” Wilson Pickett 1965  Music Cut 19:Soul Man Sam and Dave (#2 1967)  Muscle Shoals and Aretha Franklin  Fame Studios  ● 1959: Rick Hall opens fame music in muscle shoals, AL  ● Muscle shoals rhythm section­in house rhythm section  ● 1966: When a Man Loves a Woman” catches attention of Jerry Wexler, who then  begins bringing atlantic artist to fame   ● Playlist: “When a Man Loves a Woman” Percy Sledge (#1)  Aretha Franklin  ● Born in Memphis, raised in Detroit, father is preacher  ● 1960: signs w/Columbia; 10 unsuccessful pop/jazz albums  ● 1967: Jerry Wexler signs her to Atlantic; records “I Never Loved a Man (the Way  I Love You” at Muscle Shoals in her natural style  ○ I Never Loved a Man (The Way I love You” #9 1967  Music Cut 20: “Respect” (#1 1967)      


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