BSC 1005(Biology) for non majors. Chapters 3-9 Plants and People.
BSC 1005(Biology) for non majors. Chapters 3-9 Plants and People. BSC 1005 - 0001
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Webb on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1005 - 0001 at Florida State University taught by George Bates, Gregory Erickson, Hengli Tang, Steven Lenhert, Carolyn Schultz in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Biology for non-majors in Science at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Biology Chapter 3 How plants are put together The part above the ground is called the shoot, which consists of the stem, branches, and leaves. Each leaf is attached to the stem by a stalk called the petiole At the tip of the shoot is a patch of tissues called the shoot tip The shoot tip is where new cells are formed (by cell division) and where most of plant growth takes place At the base of each leaf, where the petiole connects with the stem is a lateral bud The lateral buds are dormant shoot tips and when activated to grow will form a branch, which is a new shoot system The below ground portion of the plant is the root Growth in length of both the shoot and the root is restricted to their tips Plants grow by producing new cells at the tips of the shoot and root Diagram below illustrates what I am talking about The xylem and phloem occur in the stem and root as a ring of bundles or rods of tissue Growth at the shoot and root tips makes the shoots and roots longer but does not make them wider Plants that live less than a year don’t grow in width but plants that live more than a year do grow in width because growth in width is due to cell divisions in the body of the stem and root When a plant flowers, the shoot tips stop making leaves and make flowers instead. In most plants, flowers are hermaphroditic( they both contain male and female organs) From outside to inside it goes from petals stamens anther supported by a stalk (filament) pollen grains form in the anthers at the center of the flower is the female part, the pistil ( has ovaries) inside ovry is ovules egg inside ovule In plant production, pollen is carried fro the anther stigma of the pistil. The pollen grains germinates to form a tube (the polen tube) which grows down the stigma and stle into the ovary and then into the ovule. The sperm them travels down the pollen tube into the ovule fertilizing the egg Reproduction consist of pollination and fertilization. Pollination is the transfer of pollen to stigma and fertilization is fusion of the sperm and egg together Fertilization seed (contains plant embryo) fruit The embryo is surrounded by a patch of tissue called the endosperm (storage tissue that is used for growth of the young seedling The cells that surround the endosperm develop into the seed coat, which protects the embryo until it germinates In some plant species the endosperm is digested during seed development and all the nutrients from it are stored in the cotyledons. In those cases when the seed is fully developed, the endosperm is gone and the cotyledons take up most of the volume of the seed and are filled with nutrients. This is the case for pea plants Chapter 4 Pollination and seed dispersal Self-pollination leads to genetic uniformity Some plants use wind for pollination because all organisms strive to form offspring with new combinations of genes. Ex: corn plants and oak trees. Grass, wheat, rice The plants that use wind pollination have a large stigma for insects to land on, lots of pollen, and no petals male flowers that contain anthers and release the pollen are located at the top of the plant; we call them the tassel Post plants are not wind pollinated; they are pollinated by animals . Insects such as bees, butterflies (they have flowers that have a long nectar tube), flies, moths, wasps, bees, and ants are involved but hummingbird (they like red and odorless because they have a bad sense of smell) and bats are important pollinators too. Animal pollinated flowers provide an attractant- something to help the animal find the flower- and a reward. The attractants are usually colored petals, the shape, and the scent released by the flower. The usual rewards are pollen and nectar that is produced at the base of the petals Generalist: animals who visit lots of flowers Specialist: animals that visit only one kind of flower The pollination of some plants involve trickery; the plants lure them into pollination with no reward. For ex: fly’s fruits may be fleshy or dry Fleshy is apple Dry is acorn Fleshy fruits are adapted to be eaten by animals, seeds and all. This goes through digestive system and deposited with their feces which are a rich source of nutrients, when the seed germinates Mechanism which dry fruits disperse their seeds are more varied. Some cling to fur of animal, some shoot their seeds out (mistletoe- lives on trees). Florida beaches are examples of clinging fruits (sand spikes) Some fruits are dispersed by water (for example coconuts), wind, animals for dry fruits 35% of crop production depends on insect pollination pseudopulation: wasp pollination think that the flowers are the opposite gender and try to mate with the flower but the wasp is fooled and actually gets no reward. By trying to reproduce with the flower, pollen gets on the wasps back and the wasp transfer it to the next flower cross pollination creates genetic variability, which is important for specie to adapt to environmental change an ovule seed ovary wall fruit the function of the fruit is seed dispersion Chapter 5: The Algae and Evolution of Land Plants the first organism capable of photosynthesis were bacteria phytoplankton- photosynthetic plankton (algae) plankton can be photosynthesized, microorganisms that live where it is suspended in water in the ocean the two main groups of phytoplankton are diatoms and dinoflagellates both groups consist of unicellular organisms and are very tiny but are important because they are the base of the food chain in the open ocean. They photosynthesize and provide food for all the animals. Phytoplankton produce 30% of the oxygen we breathe Diatoms have a unique cell wall that contains large amounts of silica (basically live in a glass box and is surrounded by water). Silica=glass Dinoflagellates sometimes experience massive population booms called “red tides” (doesn’t have to be red). Some produce deadly neurotoxins and red tide results in massive fish kill. If u eat oysters, which feed on plankton or clams it can be lethal and poisoning Algae: simple photosynthetic, aquatic organisms. Some our unicellular, some multicellular Phytoplankton living in association with corals are responsible for the productivity and abundance of life in coral reefs Diatoms and dinoflagellates are photosynthetic but they are not closely related to animals or green plants because when doing their DNA they are independent Bryophytes: mosses and liverworks early land plants The change from living in water to land requires new adaptation Liverworks- simple sheet of tissue growing on moist soil. No roots or leaves Mosses: important colonizing organisms. They have no xylem or phloem which means no roots or leaves Many can grow in places that are periodically dry, including bare rock surface. They need liquid water to grow but don’t need to be completely in it. They reproduce by making sores and gametes internal fertilization, egg is not released. Arnt big because they can’t transport water very far Sphagnum, peat mosses, occurs in large bogs, economically important Vascular plants without seeds club mosses, ferns and relatives Fossilized remains of these plants along with ferns formed todays coal deposits Oil comes from mostly algae Coal, gas, oil are fossils Ferns make spores, which grow into small patches of tissue that produce eggs and sperm Brown algae (found in the ocean) called macrocytic attaches to the bottom and sends up stalks and leafy blades of photosynthetic tissue more than 100 feet of the surface. These kelp forests support abundant animal life including many species of fish, abalone, crabs, seals, killer whales Five kingdoms: bacteria, animals. Fungi, Protista (algae), green plants (cellular structure is different from each other Red and brown algae use is for extraction of cell wall compounds for use in the manufacture of everything from cosmetics, paint, beer, ice cream Example of red algae is nori which is used in sushi wrappers Red and brown algae: seaweeds, kelp, multicellular Green algae mostly live in fresh water instead of ocean water (some is still found in ocean water) they’re important food source for fish Moss is only found in wet habitats. They are like dry plants when it comes to reproduction because they don’t release their eggs it is still attached to the plant (same as ferns) Ferns have xylem, phloem, roots, and leaves Ferns have two separate reproductive cycles: spore forming generation alternates with a gamete forming generation. This method of reproduction is called alteration of generations and is shared by all land plants from mosses to flowering plants. Mosses and ferns aren’t completely adapted to dry land because their sperm must swim through liquid water to reach the egg Chapter 6: cone bearing plants Cone bearing plants: o Don’t need water, completely dry o early plants with pollen and seeds are called gymnosperms (naked seed and has ovule not ovaries) but we call them cone bearing plants. All land plants reproduce by alternation of generations, but unlike ferns, they do not release their spore (they are still attached). All cone bearing plants have separate male and female cones, the spore forms inside this jacket to form a patch of nutritive tissue and an egg o The cone bearing plants are the conifers (pines, spruce, firs, redwoods, ect) plus two other less familiar groups of plants, the cycads and gingkoes o Cone bearing plants are pollinated by wind, which is less efficient than pollination by insects. Wind dispersal limits the nutrients that can be packed into the seed to help the young plant get established o The cone bearing plants are highly adapted to life on dry land, but flowering plants are even better adapted Conifers (pines, spruce, firs, redwoods, ect) o are a more dominant land plant. o Cypresss is a common in local plants o Ovule seed o Land plants evolved from green algae o Green algae land plants mosses fernsseed plants flowering and cone bearing o Functions of the seed include: protection of embryo, nutrition of embryo, dispersal o Function of pollen: deliever sperm to egg o Paper is purified cellulose. Paper production used lots of water and its environmentally messy o Junipers: cone bearing plants o Real forest is dominant by conifers, spines, spruces, and firs o These plants grow well in cold and dry environments. Pines are one of the leading sources of timber in the world o Cycads: superficially resemble palm tree but are gymnosperm and form cones. o The wood is a major economic importance and the wood of the conifer provide us with the lumber used for construction of our houses and the production of paper and paper products. The conifers are softwood species and are very abundant Chapter 7: crop production Gymnosperms have ovules and seeds but their seeds are not inside the ovary After fertilization the ovary becomes the fruit and gymnosperms dont make fruits Corn, tomatoes, potatoes, rice account for 75% of our calories Soybeans are mostly used for oil Corn and rice are nutritionally similar to wheat The kernel is a fruit Beans have almost the amount of protein that meat has Corn, rice, wheat are low in one of these amino acids(lysine), a consideration for vegetarian Crop domestication began I atleast five other different places at the same time Middle east wheat Mesoamerica corn, common bean Southern china rice Plant domestication began when the earth became warm Earliest domestication plants were cereal grains, beans o High in nutrition o Grew in large strands o Mostly annual, self-pollinating species Domestication did not occur in costal areas where marine food were available, and it did not occur in early areas with large food resources Wheat domestication involved: o Flower clusters become more compact and less likely to shatter (seed dispersal) o Thickness of the coverings over the kernel became smaller o Increases seed size Origin of modern wheat also involved accidental crosses with wild grass The hypothesis of unintentional plant domestication o The process of gathering and replanting seeds will automatically select for a series of traits involved o Seed retention 9cross of seed scatterings) o Loss of seed dormancy (reduction in thickness) Chapter 8: Agriculture and Population growth o Wheat was domesticated in the middle east o After domestication of the major crop plants, to inventions made agriculture much more productive: the plow and irrigation o The current size of the human population is 7 billion by 2050 it is protected to be 9 billion o Plants need mineral nutrients o Need in large amounts below o Nitrogen (nitrates or ammonia or urea) o Phosphate o Potassium o Sulfer o Needed in trace amounts (small) o Iron o Calcium o Copper o Zinc o Magnesium o Molybdenum o Growing crops in the same area exhaust the soil: nitrates and phosphates are lost o Solution to this is: manure, crop rotation, fertilization o Nitrogen cycle: n2 is in the atmosphere fixed into N03- and NH3 by bacteria (called nitrogen fixation) plants take up nitrate and ammonia and make proteins the animals eat the plants bacteria living in the roots of the plants in the bean family can also fix nitrogen: beans, peas, soybeans, alfalfa st nd o In crop rotation corn and wheardis planted the 1 year, beans the 2 , and the land is left empty (3 )(fallow) o Nitrogen fertilizer is synthesized by the “haber – Bosch” process, which requires large amounts of energy (oil) under high temperature and pressure o N2 + H2 NH3 (ammonia) o Phosphate is mined o Nitrogen in fertilizer can be in the for of ammonium, nitrate, or urea (slow release) o Green revolution in 1940-1970: Norman Borlaug introduced high yielding semi-dwarf wheat in Mexico in the 1940’s. yielding quadrupled. This technology was transferred to other countries with great success, particularly in Asia and south America. Development of high yielding wheat, rice, corn, that use large amounts of nitrogen fertilizer. Semi dwarf varieties prevented the plants from falling over. o Steady increase in u.s started in 1930’sbecause of genetic improvements o High yielding agriculture requires large amounts of fertilizer, pesticides, oil o China has the highest nitrogen fertilizer consumption o Two nutrients required for plant growth that are quickly lost from the solid: phosphate and nitrogen o Problem with genetic uniformity: monoculture agriculture can result in loss of genetic diversity, which makes plants susceptible to emergence of new diseases o Herbicide resistance: trans-genetic plants expressing an EPSP synthase gene from bacteria that is resistant to glyphosate Monsanto environmental friendly because animals toxicity is low. o BT iis an naturally occurring soil bacterium that produces a protein that is toxic to insects o BT has been used as an insecticide for over 100 years, without evidence of environmental problem of human or animal toxicity o Golden rice- increased vitamin A content carotenoid synthesis genes from daffodil Chapter 9: Drugs, Spices, and Poisons Morphine was the first drug to be chemically isolated Salicylic acid (aspirin) comes from the bark of willow trees and was the first drug synthesized Plants produce chemicals for defense against disease-causing organisms (bacteria and fungi) and herbivores, as well as chemicals to attract pollinators. This is why some plants are poisonous to us As more drugs were synthesized or isolated, the use of herbal drugs was replaced by purified drugs Benefits of herbal medicine o Uses as treatment of congestive heart failure (dropsy) o Gentler than purified drugs o Better tolerate the body o Has a combination of drugs that may be more effective than single purified drugs Shortcomings of herbal medicine o The strength of the active ingredients in herbal medicines can vary widely between batches and that few herbal medicines have been shown to be effective in modern double blind studies o Some don’t show effectiveness Herbal medicine is regulated as a dietary supplement rather than drugs therefor they do not show that their products are safe or effective Caffeine is found in a number of different plants and the coffee originates in Ethiopia but is now grown in many tropical countries The Europeans quest for routes to the Spice islands of southeast Asia led to the discovery of the Americas Seeds of apples, cherries, and peaches contain some cyanide Green parts of tomato and potato plants are poisonous
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