The Consciousness and the Two Track Mind
The Consciousness and the Two Track Mind PSYCH 1101 C
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Argueta on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1101 C at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Kristy Sorenson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
CONSCIOUSNESS AND TH E TWO TRACK MIND 1. THE STAGES OF SLEEP Researchers use brain’s weak electrical signals, generated by neurons, to measure sleep stages • Electroencephalogram (EEG) is the gross activity of the brain across an entire night of sleep A. Stage 1: i. The transition between wakefulness and sleep, associated with imagery resembling hallucinations B. Stage 2: i. The stage of light sleep characterized by brief bursts of brain activity called sleep spindles. C. Stage 3: i. The stage of sleep in which delta waves (large, slow brain waves) make up to 10%-50% of EEG record D. Stage 4: i. The stage of sleep w/in the EEG is entirely made up of delta waves E. REM (Rapid Eye Movement) i. The stage where eyes and brain are actives, muscles are relaxed, and vivid dreaming occurs 1. In a night, you go through all four stages several times, which is a regular pattern called a sleep cycle F. Beta waves are very fast and close together w/ high frequency G. Alpha waves: comes in w/drowsiness; slower b/c it is the transition between awake and sleep 2. PSYCHOACTIVE DRIVES A. Terminology: i. Tolerance: repeatedly taking a drug, you have to take more of that drug in order to feel the same initial response after your very first dose ii. Addiction: the reward pathway iii. Withdrawal: Reward pathway- Dopamine Starts within the ventral tegmental area, then nucleus accumbens to the prefrontal cortex • When is drug use a disorder? o Diminished control: a desire for the drug, unable to regulate how much you take o Diminished social functioning: any responsibility you ha ve but you just don’t do this o Hazardous use: emotional danger, such as drunk driving or any psychological danger associated to harm you o Drug Action: Psychoactive drugs alter perception, thinking, and mood. They do this by interfering with the normal activity of neurotransmitters, the brain’s chemical messengers I. Depressants: psychoactive drug that reduce neural activity and slow body functions (ex: alcohol, opiates such as heroin) II. Stimulants drugs that speed up body functions and excites neural activity (ex: caffeine, nicotine, cocaine) III. Hallucinogens: distort perception and may create hallucinations (ex: LSD, marijuana, ) IV. Neurotransmitters function within a synapse between neurons. The axon terminal of the neuron has formed a synapse with the dendrite of another neuron. a. Inside the axon terminal, tiny sacs called synaptic vesicles hold neurotransmitters b. When stimulated, the vesicles migrate towards the presynaptic membrane and release their neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap. c. Neurotransmitters bind on the membrane of the next neuron, this causes the next neuron to generate its own neural impulse V. What happens after the message is passed? a. Reuptake: neurotransmitter pass back through the axon terminal membrane and reenter the synaptic vessels for the next release 2 b. Breakdown: enzymes disassemble the neurotransmitters into their component parts to stop binding w/receptors c. Dispersal: some of the neurotransmitters simply drift out of synaptic region VI. Psychoactive drugs bind to receptors and either activate those receptors or prevent them from being activated by neurotransmitters. VII. Other drugs do not bind to receptors but increase the effectiveness of normal neurotransmitters by blocking their reabsorption into presynaptic membrane. (These are called reuptake inhibitors) VIII. Other drugs can also increase the effectiveness of normal neurotransmitters by blocking enzymes that break neurotransmitters down. 3. CONSCIOUSNESS (AWARENESS OF YOURSEL F) AND ATTENTION (AWARENESS W/IN THE ENVIROMENT) A. Parallel processing: when your brain can do more than one thing at a time, being able to use your muscle while doing something else (broader then multitasking) ex: driving home w/o being conscious about it i. Inattentional blindness: something you should be paying attention to but you don’t b/c you are focused on something else so you don’t see what you should see 1. Ex: pilots almost missing the stairwell b/c they were too focused on something else B. Selective attention: awareness on one part of the environment & ignoring other parts i. Cocktail part effect: when you are paying attention to one part of environment, but then when something calls you out (i.e name, favorite band/interest) you switch your attention to that indirect part 4. BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS: A. Circadian rhythm: something that your body undergoes in a cycle/pattern for 24 hours i. Ex: menstrual cycle B. Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN): located in middle of the brain, part of the hypothalamus. Keeps track of things. i. Decreased light—increases melatonin ii. Increased light—decrease melatonin 3 5. WHY DO WE SLEEP A. Protective role: avoid being in danger during darkness B. Restore and repair: cellular repair C. Strengthen neural connections : knowledge takes time to sink in, that’s why babies sleep a lot within their first years b/c of all the new info of life D. Promotes creative problem solving E. Growth hormone 6. MAJOR SLEEP DISORDER S A. Sleep deprivation i. Short term: Causes fatigue and irritability; harms concentrations, memory , and motivation ii. Long term: can lead to depression, obesity, pain, bad immune system and more vulnerability to accidents B. Insomnia C. Narcolepsy: fully awake but instantly go to sleep and can’t control you D. Sleep apnea: when your airway towards your lungs are blocked constantly and your body jolts nonstop in order to breathe again E. Night terrors: a child wakes up screaming but they’re not having a nightmare and they can’t regain memory about the supposed terror. It’s very common so children will grow out of it F. Sleepwalking and sleep talking : happens during stage 3 sleep G. Some Natural sleep aids : i. Exercise reg but not late in the evening ii. Avoid caffeine after noon, and avoid food and drink near bedtime iii. Relax before bedtime iv. Sleep on a regular schedule and avoid long naps v. Hide the time vi. Focus your mind on non-arousing, engaging thoughts 7. WHY DO WE DREAM A. File away memories B. Wish-fulfillment C. Develop and preserve neural pathways 4 D. Neural activation E. Cognitive development 5