Chemistry Weekly Notes
Chemistry Weekly Notes Chem 120
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CHEM 120 - 04
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alizé Notetaker on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 120 at Radford University taught by Professor Bibeau in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Chem 120 in Chemistry at Radford University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Chemistry Notes Electron Configurations Rule 1: Electrons fill lowest sublevels first (Aufbau Principle) & fill in the order of the PT Rule 2: Each orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons which must be in opposite spin (Pauli Exclusion Principle) ↿ ⇂ Electrons don’t pair up within a sublevel until there are no empty orbitals (Hund’s Rule) ↿ ⇂ ↿ Radioactivity Alpha Particle= Helium nucleus; 2 protons, 2 neutrons, mass is 4, stopped by paper Gamma Ray= Beam of light; 0 charge, 0 mass, stopped by lead Beta Particle= Electron; mass is 1/2000, charge is -1, stopped by aluminum Formation of Ions Ion- electrically charged atom or group of atoms Cation- positively charged ion (typically formed by metals) Anion- negatively charged ion (typically formed by nonmetals) Neutral atoms have the same # of protons & electrons Ionization energy- energy required to remove an electron Cations formed by the LOSS of electrons Anions formed by GAIN of electrons Ionic Bonds Ionic Bond- electrostatic attraction between ions of opposite charge Electrostatic attraction basically means opposites attracts Ionic Compounds are held together in a lattice of ions Properties of Ionic Compounds Crystalline solids High melting points Soluble in water Form between metals and nonmetals Ions& the Octet Rule Octet Rule: elements either gain or lose electrons to obtain an outer shell of eight electrons IT HELPS TO MEMORIZE THE NUMBER OF VALENCE ELECTRONS AND THE IONIC CHARGES Naming Ions Cation names: same as element name; include a roman numeral charge for metals that form more than one possible charge (usually transition metals) Anion names end in -ide Polyatomic Ions Contain more than 1 atom Function as an indivisible unit Considered as molecules with a charge Ammonium, Hydroxide, Phosphate, Nitrate, Carbonate, Bicarbonate, & Sulfate examples of Polyatomic ions H+ and -OH ions Acids create H+ ions in water; HCl (hydrochloric), Sulfuric, and Phosphoric are examples Bases create -OH ions in water; Sodium hydroxide and Calcium hydroxide are examples Water molecule= bent shape Covalent Bonding Between 2 nonmetals Atoms attracted to same pair of electrons Sharing or electrons Occur as molecules Ionic Bonding Between metal and nonmetal Opposite charged ions attract each other Transfer of electrons Occur in lattices Diatomic Molecules H2, I2, N2, Cl2, Br2, O2, F2; These elements occur in nature as diatomic molecules