Archeology Notes Week 5
Archeology Notes Week 5 ANT 240
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joseph Notetaker on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 240 at Missouri State University taught by Dr. F. Scott Worman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Archaeology in Anthropology at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Archeology Notes Week 5 Dating: o Relative dating Places items into a sequence o Chronometric (absolute) dating Estimates age/ calendar year for an item Relative dating methods: Stratigraphy: o Nicolas Steno (1669) o Law of superposition: layers on the bottom are older o Principle of cross-cutting relationships: if something cuts through a stratum, it must be younger than that stratum o Principle of original horizontality: most layers of sediment initially are laid down horizontally o Principle of lateral continuity: layers of sediment initially were continuous across a surface (except if obstructed) o Stratigraphy in the real world o Is often extremely complicated Type (index) fossil: o Concept developed in geology, 1700’s-1800’s o Temporally diagnostic artifact types: types made and used for a limited time o Use temporally diagnostic artifacts to correlate sites Can combine with absolute dating to identify time ranges Seriation: o 1890’s, Petrie (re) invented seriation to put discrete tomb assemblages into chronological order o 1915-1927, Kidder develops ceramic seriation o “Battleship shaped curves o Orders assemblages; don’t know which end is “up” Obsidian Hydration: o Obsidian (volcanic glass) slowly absorbs water Alters obsidian perlite o Thickness of hydration rind increases over time o Often calibrated to mimic absolute dating o Complications Rate of hydration varies with temperature, moisture, and chemistry of obsidian Solution 1: XRF sourcing and long term monitoring + model burial history Solution 2: large sample sizes and statistics