BSC 215 Week 6 Notes
BSC 215 Week 6 Notes BSC 215
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordana Baraad on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology I in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Abbreviations GAG = glycosaminoglycan IMP = integral membrane protein RBC/ WBC = red/white blood cell LO2: Describe the general components of the extracellular matrix Ground substance: Gelatinous to rubbery substance due to: • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) • E.g. chondroitin sulfate, heparin, hyaluronic acid • charged, attract water molecules • Proteoglycan • “Bottle brush” like structures • Slow pathogens, connect extracellular matrix to cell membranes • Glycoproteins • Bind plasma membranes to extracellular collagen & proteoglycans GAG v. Proteoglycan If G first, mostly sugar; if P first, mostly protein LO2: Describe the general components of the extracellular matrix • Fibrous proteins • Collagenous fibers • 25% of bodies protein –most abundant • Tough, resist stretching ex. grandma pulls cheek; bounces back • Reticular fibers: Thin collagen fibers with glycoprotein coat • Form spongelike frameworks for spleen and lymph nodes • Elastic fibers: Made of elastin coiled protein with ability to recoil (elasticity) Definition elastic—NOT able to stretch; able to return to orig form KNOW GAG, Proteoglycans, etc. Functions LO3: Recognize the major human cellular morphologies… Squamous—flat shape; good for diffusion/ exchange Ex. alveoli in lung—least possible dist for gases to cross Cuboidal—cube shape If look under microscope, will see some rounded Columnar—good for extensive enzymatic activity Ex. in digestive tract Polygonal Stellate---“starlike” Spheroidal—purple (WBC’s) Discoid—pink (RBC’s) Fusiform Fibrous—long and ropelike (skinetal muscle cells (multinucleated for lots cytoplasm) Cell morphologies w/o descriptions are uncommon/ not much covered hereafter LO3: … describe the structures that connect cells in a tissue • Cell junctions • Physical connections between tissue cells • All cells (except blood) are anchored to each other or their matrix by intercellular junctions • Tight junctions—form waterproof seals IMPs of adjacent cells lock together to form an impermeable seal desmosomes—strong linkage linked to cytoskeleton attach to other desmosome of adjacent cell; via hooks IMPs of adjacent cells interweave between cells and connect to intermediate filaments within cells. Resist mechanical stress “velcro” Gap junctions—form pipes btwn cells ½ channel in 1 cell; other ½ in other cells; GJ’s bridge the gap in cardiac muscle Interlinked protein pores that allow substances to pass between cells CQ1: type of cell prevents water from flowin btwn cells? B. Tight junction LO4: Be able to identify and characterize different types of epithelial tissue based on distinguishing structural characteristics • Two broad types of epithelial tissue • Coverings & linings: Boundaries between different environments (e.g. external / internal) • Glands: Secrete mucous, sweat, enzymes, hormones etc diff btwn secretion and excretion secretion—releasing something useful excretion—releasing waste *** epithelial tissue always assoc w/ connective tissue Epithelial Tissue: General Char 1. Polarity: Associated with external environment or organ cavity a. apical side: Associated with external environment or organ cavity i. growing surface; faces out b. basal side: Associated with basal lamina (non cellular filter between tissue types) i. connected to you; faces connective tissue ii. what fetal tissue is assoc w/ iii. assoc w/ basal lamina: noncellular filter btwn tissue types 1. often made of reticular fibers 2. specialized contacts a. tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions b. not much ECM 3. Avascular: no blood supply 4. Supported by connective tissue a. Retic lamina + basal lam = basal membrane (strength), blood vessels (nutrition, gas echange, and water removal b. Water diffuses thru; waste diffuses out 5. innervated—nerve endings present a. barrier tissue is good place to put senses b. lots input from external enviro 6. regenerative—capable of cell division a. constant mitosis b. not all tissues regenerative—some Y, some N i. ex. N—nervous tissue LO4: Be able to identify and characterize different types of epithelial tissue based on distinguishing structural characteristics Shape: 3 basic Squamous, cuboidal, columnal # layers: 1—simple, pseudostratified (looks stratified, often ciliated) multiple—stratified combine 2 classifications to get full classification CQ 2: 1 layer; tall, elongated C. simple columnar epithelium Simple epithelia 4 types Simple Squamous (flat, scaly cells) • Simple Cuboidal (square or round cells) • Simple Columnar (tall, narrow cells) • Pseudostratified columnar (single layer cells with unequal heights) • Goblet cells (Wineglass shaped cells amongst columnar cell tissues, secret Assoc w/ simple epithelium oten in glands (glands can be tissues or organism) Stratified epithelia • 220 layers of cells • Only deepest layer contacts basal membrane • Four kinds • Stratified squamous typ get to this form bc squished into that position • Stratified cuboidal • Stratified Columnar (rare) • Transitional epithelium in cavity that can change shape allows bladder to increase in size to store urine LO5: Relate the structure of each type of epithelial tissue to its function and where it is found in the body epithelium • Protection (e.g. skin, stomach lining, Immune function) ex. skin is primary barrier to outside world; keeps pathogens out ex. keep stomach acids enclosed in lining • Secretion (e.g. enzymes, hormones) • Excretion (e.g. CO2 in lungs) –waste product • Absorption (e.g. small intestine) –something crossing a barrier ex. food entering cells • Filtration (e.g. kidneys & blood) ex. kidneys filter blood plasma get rid off all water; reabsorb most • Sensation (e.g. nerve endings) sense external enviro all BOUNDARY interactions CQ3: Simple columnar epith lines the air sacs of lungs, forms outer boundary of serous membranes, and lines blood vessels B: false—simple squamous is correct Simple Squamous Single layer of thin, flat cells, bound together by tight junctions • Permits rapid diffusion or transport across cells (lungs, kidney) • Secretes lubricating serous fluid (intestinal serosa) • Lung alveoli, Kidney glomeruli, endothelium, serosa Serosa: gen term for membrane/ boundary Inside intestine: columnar cells outside of intestine: simple squamous pure food (no longer toxic) diffuses directly across it bloodstream Simple Cuboidal • Single layer of square or round cells • Absorption and secretory functions (mucous production, often form multicellular glands) ***secretory is key function • can be ciliated—ex. in lungs (mucous movement) • Liver, thyroid, mammary, salivary, kidney tubules and bronchioles Simple columnar Single row of tall, narrow cells • Brush border of microvilli • Often possesses goblet cells (secrete mucus) • Absorption & secretion • ***GI tract lining also, uterus, kidneys, uterine tubes Pseudostratified Columnar Upper trachea; ID w/ ciliated cells + single layer All chars of epithelia All cells touch basement membrane • Includes cilia and goblet cells • Secretes and propels mucous • Upper respiratory tract and portions of male urethra Transport across epithelia 2 ways to get across epith layer 1. transcellular—thru cells; common a. Osmosis Simple diffusion –down concentration gradient, passivley b. Facilitated diffusion –proeinassited c. Active transport –up conc gradient d. Vesicular transport—wholesale, lots at once 2. paracellular—btwn cells; rare (prevented by tight junctions) a. ex. blood cells into bloodstream btwn cells, not thru Stratified Squamous • Most abundant epithelia in body (bc epidermis covers whole body) • Deepest layers undergo continuous mitosis • Daughter cells push towards surface, flatten during migration (obtain squamous shape) • Die and flake off (too far from nourishing basal membrane) cut off from diffusion by keratin layer • 2 kinds: keratanized, nonkeratinized keratinized keratin intercell layer waterproof bodies found mostly inheels, palms, etc. –tough Multiple cell layers, flat & scaly towards surface • Resists abrasion, retards water loss nonkeratinized found in mouth, tongue, vagina mult layers living bc need to secrete don’t need to be as tough Similar to keratinized • No keratin, no dead cell layers • Tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus, vagina • Resists abrasion Ex. esophagus—resists food abrasion; also secretes enzymes, etc Transport Across Epithelium Transcellular: Osmosis Simple & Facilitated diffusion Active transport Vesicular transport Paracellular (less common due to tight junctions) Statified cuboidal **Cuboidal ALWAYS Secretion • Two or more cell layers, cuboidal or round • Secretes sweat, sperm production & ovarian hormone production • Sweat gland ducts, ovarian follicles and seminiferous tubules Transition epithelium • Multilayered epithelium cells that change shape from round to flattened when stretched • Apical surface provides protective, flexible lipid layer • Ureter and bladder Summary Slide Transitional epithelium in bladder Recall: tight junctions surround epithelial cells LO6: Describe and classify the structural and functional properties of exocrine and endocrine glands • Organs: 2 tissue types coming together often epithelial tissue encapsulated by connective tissue framework Cell or organ that secretes or excretes substances • Cell example: goblet cells • Organs: epithelial tissue encapsulated by connective tissue framework Exocrine: secretes outside world or internal organ via duct Maintain contact with body surfaces via ducts • E.g. sweat, mammary, salivary glands Endocrine: secretes directly into bloodstream; no duct Ex. hormones Multicellular Exocrine Glands Capsule (connective tissue covering) + septa (traberculae) = stroma Septa (or trabeculae): Connective tissue that compartmentalize interior Capsule: Connective tissue covering Parenchyma: Cells that synthesize & secrete (typically cuboidal) Exocrine secretion modes Merocrine (eccrine): Products released as vesicles during exocytosis tear glands, pancreas, gastric glands, sweat Apocrine: Similar to merocrine, but part of cytoplasm broken off along with vesicles from apical portion (e.g. mammary glands) Holocrine: Cells accumulate product, then rupture to release it (e.g. sebacious glands on scalp) CQ 4: Glands single cells or organs made up of 2 or more tissues—true CQ 5: What type of secretion involves release of substances, such as saliva and seat, in secretory vesicles a. merocrine NOT… a. apocrine—it breaks off b. holocrine—whol new cell Multicellular Exocrine Glands Septa (or trabeculae): Connective tissue that compartmentalize interior Capsule: Connective tissue covering Stroma: Capsule & septa framework Parenchyma: Cells that synthesize & secrete (typically cuboidal) 9/22/16 Histology Pt. 2 LO1: Describe the general functions and properties of connective tissues • Bind organs together • Tendons bind muscle to bone; ligaments bind bones to bone; adipose tissue holds eyes and kidneys in place. • Support • Bones support body cartilage support nose, ears, larynx; fibrous tissues from cardiac skeleton and framework for e.g. spleen. • Physical protection • E.g. cranium, rib cage, adipose tissue Less Obvious Roles • Immune protection • Leukocytes are immune cells, loose connective tissue forms a “battleground” of matrix under the skin and mucous membranes for leukocytes to do their job in blood not always thought of as CT, but is ex. areolar is very prolific CT • Movement • Bones provide levers, cartilages move vocal chords • Storage • Adipose tissue is major energy reserve triglycerides very highenergy obesity isn’t having more adipose cells; having bigger cells same w/ building muscle (size not cell #) bones are major calcium and phosphorus reserves constant deposition/ dissolving necessary for life crystallization rigidity bones are living; constantly being remodeled/ adapt to stress • Heat production • Brown fat catabolism generates heat in infants and children (Hibernating animals) rare • Transport • Become obv when consider blood transports nutrients, gases, hormones and wastes LO1: Describe the general functions and properties of connective tissues Properties NOT truisms—LEARN EXCEPTIONS as part of learning general Usually cells occupy less space than matrix o Exception: adipose—giant contusion bodies in adipocytes store triglycerides Don’t want them floating around; keep in place Cells often not in direct contact with each other Matrix plays an extensive role in function Vary greatly in vascularity o E.g. highly vascularized loose connective tissue o Vs. exceptionstendons & ligaments o Bones/ cartilage somewhere in btwn Bones highe bc blood made in bones KNOW THIS CHART: CT proper ll Specialized CT Origin: Mesenchyme: origin for all CTs Stem cells differentiation Fibroblasts fibrocyte proper ct Chondroblast chondorcyte for cartilage Osteoblast for bone Hemopoietic for blood cells W andR -blast comes first (not so far from mesenchyme) not hard to interchange in –blast form -cytes = more mature form; almost impossible to interchange blood types in A&P II -cytes become trapped in matrix CT proper Loose Areaolar, reticular Differentiate by fiber ratios Dense Regular, irregular (unidirectional stress via random stress) Elastic—distensile ECM: gell-like substance, contains 1 of 3 fibrocytes Collagen, retic, elastic fibers Specialized Collagen ECM Bone ECM Crystallization on collagen fibers Blood—liquid plasma No visible fibers when flowing; fibers apparent in clotting Fibers dissolved Each category has something uniue to ECM Connective tissue proper Fibroblasts Produce & maintain fibers (collagen, reticular, elastic) & ground substance Hard to stain reticular fibers at same time as elastic and collagen—retic typ not stained Bulbous tissues Adipocytes Not unique to adipose tissues; also in CT proper Fat cells, store triglycerides in large inclusion bodies Local energy sources for quick energy supply Mast cells Immune cells, granule contents stimulate inflammatory response Permanent members of CT Phagocytes Immune cells, macrophages & neutrophils, ingest & destroy foreign cells & damaged host cells Other cells have immune activity Other immune cells **Migrants, not permanent members compositional change in CT dep on health LO2: Compare and contrast the roles of individual cells and fiber types within connective tissues CartilageProduced by chondroblasts (in periosteum) • Secrete matrix (GAGs, collagen and elastic fibers) GAG to trap water 80% water (helps w/ elasticity/ compressability of cells) • Become trapped in lacunae • Become chondrocytes –maintain tissue and communicate w/ other cels • Little innervation & vascularization found in places where compression needed • Relies on perichondrium for nourishment and further growth (chondroblasts) living stem cell region fibrocytes grow from outside in becomes trapped in periosteum LO2: Compare and contrast the roles of individual cells and fiber types within connective tissues C ECM very sim to cartilege; just change ratio Ca/ P minerals crystallized make it specialized Osteoblasts secrete matrix; become trapped in lacunae Interconnected lacunae in Canaliculae (living tissue w/n) Osteocytes extend all the way thru Bridged by gap junctions direct ommunication Grows from outside in, done around blood vessels To incorporate vessels Osteoblast Derived from WBC’s Blast—build bones; clast—cleave bones Cleavage to get Ca fr bone; or to remodel bones Diff fr cartilage Lamellae layers (concentric) Blood Only liquid connective tissue • Ground substance = plasma • Cells = erythrocytes (red blood cells) & leukocytes (white blood cells) Peritonic remains • Fibers only form during clotting (fibrin) dissolved; come together when need to (vessel damage) LO3: Classify the connective tissues based on distinguishing characteristics describe where in the body they are found and correlate their structures with their functions Summary: • Areolar • All 5 cell types fibrocyte, macrophage, adipocyte, chondrocyte, osteocyte • All 3 fiber types (mostly collagen) • Abundant – highly vascularized & supplies epithelia with blood provides space for immune cells (WBCs) to “patrol” deep to epithelium fibroblasts secrete collagen fiber ropelike substance Elastic—much thinner than collagen (retic not seen) Dense regular • Closely packed, parallel collagen fibers, function: resist predictable tension • Tendons & ligaments fulfill funct can pull apart sideways, not vertically • Few blood vessel Dense irregular • Dense, closely packed collagen, random directions, resists unpredictable tensions • Dermis, tough protective capsules around organs, fibrous sheath around bones, nerves& cartilage “protection against grandma” organs always moving (somewhat randomly) so necessary dense irregular ct around bone continuous w/ dense reg ct in tendon Dense elastic Look for thin, parallel fibers NOT thick (collagen fibers can’t stretch) • Closely packed, parallel elastic fibers, randomly orientated collagen fibers • Allows tissues and organs to stretch • Linings of large blood vessels, certain ligaments, heart, stomach heart not only organ to pump blood thru body valves/ arteries must prevent backflow arteosclerosis (hardening of arteries) decrease funct of circulation • Adipose (exception to gen rule—cells perform most of fnct) • Adipocytes dominant cell type • Single large central globule of stored tryglycerides • up to 5x larger globules in obesity increase size, not # • Highly vascularized ** storing energy molecule, need to transport throught body • Adipocytes held in network of collagen fibers • White fat (adults) • Accumulates subcutaneously (quickly disappears as used up) Triglycerides are constantly hydrolyzed and synthesized (dehydration synth)(energy molecule) v. • Brown fat (Infants, between shoulder blades) • Numerous mitochondria, no ATP synthesis, heat only CQ—participation reward
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