Human Development Week Three Notes
Human Development Week Three Notes HD 265
Popular in HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: A LIFE-SPAN APPROACH
Popular in Human Development
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika De Leygraaf on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 265 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Cuiting Li in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: A LIFE-SPAN APPROACH in Human Development at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
9/20/16 What We Discussed: Chapter 2 - Psycho Social Theory - Erik Erickson - Each stage contains a crisis - Emphasizes social environment - 8 Stages - Trust vs Mistrust (Birth-1 year) - Autonomy vs Doubt (1-3 years) - Initiative vs Guilt (3-6 years) - Industry vs Inferiority (6-11 years) - Identity vs Role Confusion (Adolescence) - Intimacy vs Isolation (Young Adulthood) - Generativity vs Stagnation (Middle Adulthood) - Integrity vs Despair (Late Adulthood-Death) - 2 words → spectrum extremes - Crisis does not end after age range - Behaviorism - Studying only what can be seen and measured - Classical Conditioning = one event is connected to an unrelated event - Ivan Pavlov’s dogs → bell and food - Operant Conditioning = continue or stop doing something based on reinforcement - B.F. Skinner’s rats → pressing bar and food - Reinforcement → positive or negative - Harlow’s Study - Monkeys → reinforced by food and comfort - Food from wire “mom” - Comfort from cloth “mom” - Proved behaviorism - Social Learning Theory - Learn through modeling - Bandura’s Bobo the Clown Doll → kids watched adult beat the doll so they beat the doll - Self Efficacy → peers can do it so they believe they can do it - Cognitive Theory - Piaget - Learn by exploring - Sensorimotor, Preoperational, concrete, operational, and formal operational - Want to Meet Equilibrium → through Adaptation - Assimilation = alter new idea to fit known info - Accommodation = alter known info to fit new - Emergent Theories - Sociocultural Theory - Lev Vygotsky - Guided (learning) participation = children learn more with help from their parents - Zone of Proximal Development - Humanism → Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs - Physiological (food, water, shelter) - Safety and Security - Love and Belonging - Respect and Esteem - Self-Actualization **must have the first levels before you can gain later levels** - Evolutionary Theory - Darwin’s natural selection 9/22/16 What We Discussed: Chapter 3 - The Genetic Code - All made of proteins - DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) = basic instructions for protein creation - DNA make up chromosomes → 46 total, 23 pairs - Genes = determines DNA - Alleles = variations of genes, 2 alleles=1 gene - Genome = all genes - Alleles → Genes → Genome → DNA → Chromosomes - Beginning of Human Life - Gamete = sperm or ovum cell, consists of 23 chromosomes - Zygote = fused sperm and ovum cell, consists of 46 chromosomes - Genotype vs Phenotype - Genotype = genetic description (genes) - Phenotype = characteristics based off of genotype - Carriers = those who contain an allele for a trait but do not express it, usually is a recessive allele - Sex Chromosomes → 23rd pair of chromosomes - XX = female - XY = male - Other Genetic Terms - Polygenic Trait = trait is determined by more than one gene (set of alleles) - Multifactorial = genes and corresponding traits that can be altered by environmental factors - Homozygous = gene with two of the same alleles - Heterozygous = gene with two different alleles - Dominant Alleles = will be expressed when alleles are homozygous for that allele and heterozygous - Always represented with a capital letter - Recessive Alleles = will be expressed only when alleles are homozygous for that allele - Always represented with a lowercase letter - Red Hair Example - Red hair is a recessive allele (h) to all other hair colors. We will use brown hair (H) for this example. - Girl - Genotype: hh - Phenotype: red hair - Mom - Genotype: hh - Phenotype: red hair - Dad - Genotype: Hh - Phenotype: brown hair H h H HH Hh h hH hh The girl’s parents both must contain a recessive allele for her to have red hair. Her mom has red hair, and since the girl has red hair, her dad is a carrier for the red hair allele.
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