New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology, Week 4

by: eshumaker1328

Biology, Week 4 BIO 120 65


Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Red- important Green-definitions pink-equations
General Bio 1
Dr. Cymbola
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in General Bio 1

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by eshumaker1328 on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 120 65 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Cymbola in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Bio 1 in Biology at Grand Valley State University.


Reviews for Biology, Week 4


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/23/16
Monday, September 19, 2016 Biology, Week 4 Cell Structure and Function - cells are very diverse in structure and function - forms follow function 10.1: Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food - photosynthetic enzymes and other molecules are grouped together in a biological membrane enables the necessary series of of chemical reactions to be carried out efficiently • - photosynthetic membranes function similarly to the chloroplast[eukaryotic cell] Chloroplasts: The sites of Photosynthesis in Plants - all green parts of a plant - half a million chloroplasts in a chunk of leaf with a top surface area of 1 mm^2 - found many in the cells of mesophyll [the tissue in the interior of the leaf] - stomata: the microscopic pores where CO2 enters the leaf - stroma: an envelope of two membranes surrounding a dense fluid - suspended within the storm is a third membrane system, made up of sacs: thylakoids - Chlorophyll: the green pigment that gives leaves their color 1 Monday, September 19, 2016 Tracking Atoms Through Photosynthesis: Scientific Inquiry - chemical equation • 6 CO2 + 6 H20 + Light Energy —> C6H12O6 + 6 O2 - in the presence of light the green parts of plants produce organic compounds and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water - water appears on both sides because 12 molecules are consumed and 6 molecules are newly formed - it is the reverse of what happens in cellular respiration Splitting of Water - CO2 + 2 H2O —> [CH2O] + H2O + O2 - O2 given off by plants is derived from H2O and not CO2 - Chloroplast splits water into hydrogen and oxygen - significant result of shuffling of atoms during photosynthesis is the extraction of hydrogen from water and its incorporation into sugar - the waste is released into the atmosphere Photosynthesis as a Redox Process - photosynthesis reverses the direction of electron flow - process becomes endergonic The Two Stages of Photosynthesis: A Preview - not actually a single process - 2 stages: light reactions [the photo part of photosynthesis] & Calvin cycle [the synthesis part] - convert solar energy to chemical energy - light absorbed by chlorophyll drives a transfer of the elections and hydrogen ions from water to an acceptor called NADP+ [nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate] 2 Monday, September 19, 2016 - NADP+ & NAD+ — electron carrier in cellular respiration - Photophosphorylation: the light reactions also generate ATP, using chemiosmosis to power the addition of a phosphate group to ADP - converted into 2 compounds: ATP & NADPH • NADPH: a source of electrons, “reducing power” • ATP: versatile energy currency of cells - Carbon Fixation: initial incorporation of carbon into organic compounds - Calvin Cycle makes sugar - NADPH & ATP produces light reactions • does get released to the stroma where they play crucial roles in the CC 10.2: The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH The Nature of Sunlight - light is a form of energy known as electromagnetic energy [electromagnetic radiation] - travels in rhythmic waves - distance between crests or troughs are wavelengths • ranges from 1 nm to more than a km - entire range of radiation: electromagnetic spectrum - ^^ is known as visible light - discrete particles: photons • non tangible objects • fixed quantity of energy Photosynthetic Pigments: The Light Receptors 3 Monday, September 19, 2016 - substances that absorb visible light are known as pigments - the ability of a pigment to absorb various wavelengths of light can be measure with an instrument: spectrophotometer - a graph plotting a pigments light absorption versus wavelength is called: absorption spectrum - chlorophyll a: the key light capturing pigment the participates directly in the get reactions - chlorophyll b: accessory pigment - carotenoids: seperate group of accessories - action spectrum: profiles the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving the process - photoprotection: these compounds absorb and dissipate excessive light energy that would otherwise damage chlorophyll or interact with oxygen, forming a reactive oxidative molecule that are dangerous to the cell A Photosystem: A Reaction-Center Complex Associated with Light-Harvesting Complexes - photosystem is composed of a reaction-center complex surrounded by several light-harvesting complexes - light-harvesting complexes: consists of various pigment molecules bound to proteins • may contain chlorophyll a, b and multiple carotenoids - primary electron acceptor: a molecule capable of accepting electrons and becoming reduced - photosystem II (PS II) & (PS I): the thylakoid membrane is populated by two types of photosystems that cooperate in the light reactions of photosynthesis 4 Monday, September 19, 2016 Linear Electron Flow - ^^: a flow of electrons through the photosystems and other molecular components built into the thylakoid membrane Cyclic Electron Flow - uses photosystem I but not II 5


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.