ANP 445, Week 1 Lecture Notes
ANP 445, Week 1 Lecture Notes ANP 455
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Streufert on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANP 455 at Michigan State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Archaeology of Ancient Egypt in Anthropology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Natural vs. Cultural/Political Annual rainfall is 10 mm Herodotus Said “Egypt is the gift of the Nile" 3 tributaries of the Nile Atbara Blue Nile White Nile Most of Egypt’s concepts ran from the South to the North When they visited other places, they said the rivers there ran the wrong way Nubia Refers to South of Egypt Also refers to the people from there West and Eastern Egypt was ideologic distinction East - Land of the Living West - Land of the Dead Delta represents 63% of the inhabited area of Egypt Extends approx. 200 km from south to north and 400 km from east to west Main branches of delta Rosetta Damietta Delta is ever-changing In antiquity Waters of Pre Waters of Ptah Waters of Amun Northern delta swamps are called Bareri 4 major lakes on northern shore All are freshwater Most are only separated from the Mediterranean by a thin strip of sediment Water table is much higher in the delta and lower in the desert Eastern Desert Redder sand Rockier Rougher terrain Western Desert Yellow sand Typical desert Oasis Largest Fiyum Fed by Nile 14 scattered throughout Western Desert All are populated (and have been populated for 1,000’s of years) Siwa is the smallest and most distant Red Land/Black Land Kemet Rich sediment of the Nile ﬂoodplain Life Djseret Arid deserts outside the Nile Valley Death Chaos Annual Inundation June Nile begins to rise between Cairo and Aswan August Waters of the Nile takes on a muddy red color due to the rich, red earth brought in by tributaries September Nile continues to rise until mid month December Waters of the Nile start to recede Usually very predictable, but sometimes had a little ‘wiggle-room' Low ﬂood Much of ﬂoodplain remains dry and devoid of fertile sediment Leads to starvation and desertion of land High ﬂood Reduced crop yields Favors plant parasites Delays harvest Destroys settlements, stored food, seed stocks, and livestock Causeway to the pyramid of Unas 2375-2345 BC Has scenes of starving population that illustrates the impact of a low ﬂood for a few years Nile as National Highway Hieroglyphs North Boat without sails South Boat with sails unfurled Nubia and the Southern Boundary 1st cataract was the traditional southern boundary of Egypt Around Aswan Cataract - rapids, rocky 6 total South of that was Nubia Conquered (re-conquered) and incorporated into country The Aswan High Dam Built to regulate the ﬂooding Political Geography of Ancient Egypt Capital moved throughout every period Nome Sepat Provinces Governed by Nomarchs (governors) 22 Nomes in Upper Egypt 20 Nomes in Lower Egypt Survive until 307 AD 3 forms of writing 1. Hieroglyphic 2. Hieratic 3. Demotic Hieroglyphic Formal 2 components Phonetic/alphabetic Uniliteral Biliterals Triliterals Quadliterals Logograms Has a stroke below alphabetic/phonetic hieroglyph to designate a logogram Determinatives Always at the end of an idea .w at the end of a word (archeologists put) designates plurality Agroup of three logograms/phonetic/alphabetic designates plurality Always read from the direction characters are pointing Hieratic Usually on perishable materials Papyrus Ostraca Piece of stone/pottery that is being reused as a writing surface Less formal “priestly writing" Demotic Script looks like a mixture of hieratic and Arabic Much later than the other 2 forms 650 B.C. - 452 A.D. (December 11th) Last known use is grafﬁti on a temple wall, which is dated Evolves into Coptic Used by Christian Egyptians Copts About 60,000 modern Copts Last living script/language of ancient Egyptian Rosetta stone Has hieroglyphics, demotic, and greek Roots of Ancient Egyptian Writing Possibly defused from Mesopotamia (Cuneiform) Abydos Umm El-Qa'ab Royal necropolis Ivory (hippo) labels 3500-3300 B.C. Attached to goods Documents quantity, quality, and location from Earlier than the communication with Mesopotamia Differences in writing purpose Purposes of trade (both local and extra-local) Tool of the state & pharaoh Mesopotamia Purposes of inventory (temple) and taxation Accounting Shenu (cartouche) Denotes a royal name Came into use at the beginning of the 4th Dynasty Elongated version of the Shen Ring Which is associated with Nekhbet and Horus Serekh Predecessor of the shenu Often has Horus on top of box Predynastic - old kingdom (though used sporadically until late period) Niched or gated facade of a palace surmounted by the Horus falcon