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BIOM 360 Week 4 Notes

by: Bronwyn

BIOM 360 Week 4 Notes BIOM 360-001


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About this Document

Lecture notes from 9/19, 9/21 and 9/23
General Microbiology
Seth Walk
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bronwyn on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOM 360-001 at Montana State University taught by Seth Walk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Microbiology at Montana State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
● Catabolism ­­ metabolic streamlining  ○ Funneling of energy sources  ○ Catabolic pathways    9/19:  ■ Aerobic respiration  ● Produces ATP  ● Catabolize glucose  ● Steps  ○ 1. Glycolysis ­­­ glucose → pyruvate  ■ Pathways  ● EM pathway  ○ glucose+2ADP+2P​+2NAD​ +  i​ → 2pyruvate+2ATP+2NADH+ 2H  ○ In cytoplasmic matrix  ○ Happens w/ or w/o O​  2 ○ +P​ = ATP expend  i​ → oxidation = get NADH and ATP  → synthesized ATP by substrate level        phosphorylation  ● ED  +​ +  ○ glucose+ADP+P​+NAi​ +NADP​ → 2pyruvate+ATP+NADPH+NADH  ○ Balance cofactor pools  ● Pentose phospate  +​ ○ 1glucose­6­P+12NADP​ +7H​ O 2​ → 6CO​ +12NADPH+12H​ +P​  +​ 2​ i ○ Reduces biosynthesis power  ○ Can happen with EM or ED  ● Amphilbolic  ○ 2. TCA (citric acid) cycle  ■ Produce carbon skeleton for biosynthesis  ■ 1acteylCoA = 2CO​ +2​ADH+FADH​ +GTP  2​ ­​ ○ 3. e​ transport  ■ Transport chains ­ e​ carrier series moving e​ from low to high  potential  ■ Each carrier is reduced and reoxidized  ■ Cytochromes ­ heme bound Fe for oxidation  ■ Bacteria and archaea has in plasma membrane  ­​ ● Use different e​ carriers; branched and shorter chains  ■ Oxidative phosphorylation  ­​ ● Amount of ATP synthesized w/ 2 e​ movement  ■ Chemiosmotic hypothesis  ● Protons move out as e​ are transferred  ● Proton motive force (PMF)  ○ Diffusion of e​  drives ATP synthesis using PMF  flow  ● Breaking down other molecules  ○ Broken down and added to central metabolism  ○ Lipids  ■ Energy source  ■ ß­oxidation pathway  ● Fatty acyl CoA + NAD​  + FAD​    → acetyl CoA + NADH + FADH  ○ Protein and amino acid  ■ Protease ­ hydrolyzes protein  ■ Deamination and transamination ­ movement of amines  ○ Other carbs  ○ polymers    9/21:  ● ATP yield  ○ Max theoretical yield is 38  ○ Actual yield changes on environment   ■ Anaerobic conditions gives 2 ATP because TCA can’t run  ■ Bacterial ETC are shorter  ■ PMF used for other stuff in bacteria/archaea  ■ Anaerobic respiration  ● Uses e​ carrier other than O2​ and yields less energy  ● Dissimilatory NO​3​reduction  ● Denitrification  ○ Turns NO​ 3​o N​2  ■ Fermentation  ­​ + ● e​ carrier pool too reduced, need to regenerate NAD​   ● Endogenous e​ acceptor = pyruvate/acetyl CoA  ● ATP generated ONLY by substrate level phosphorylation  ■ Metabolizing inorganic sources  ● Chemolithotrophy  ­​ ○ e​ released from inorganic source   ○ C from CO​   2 ○ ATP from oxidative phosphorylation or SLP  ○ Energy sources ­ species use different sources  ○ Chemolithotroph group  ■ S oxidation ­ H​ S, S, S​ O​   2​ 2​3​ ■ H oxidation  ■ Ammonia (NO​ ) oxidation  3​ ­​ ○ Reverse e​ flow  ■ Calvin cycle requires NADH/NADPH for CO​  fixation  2​ ○ Metabolic flexibility  ■ Switch between litho/organo and auto/hetero  ■ Photosynthesis  ● Light energy → chemical energy  ● Archaea = phototrophy  ● O​2​generated  ● **Table 11.8  ● 2 parts  ○ Light reaction: light harvested  ■ Chlorophylls = light absorbing pigments  ■ Accessory pigments  ● Transfer light to chlorophylls  ■ Pigment organization  ● Antennas  ● Photosystems  ● e​ flow → PMF → ATP  ■ Anoxygenic  ● O2​ not produced  ● Only 1 photosystem  ● Bacteriochlorophyll  ○ Dark reaction: CO2​ reduced  ● Bacteriorhodopsin phototrophy  ○ Archaea  ○ PMF generated  ○ ETC not involved  ● Anabolism  ○ Uses energy from catabolic reactions w/ C source to make inorganic molecules  ○ Turnover of molecules  ○ Regulated metabolism  ○ Biosynthesis principles  ■ Synthesized macromolecules from monomers w/ irreversible anabolic pathways  ■ Many enzymes are both catabolic/anabolic  ■ anabolic/catabolic reactions are physically separated and use different cofactors  ○ Precursor metabolites  ■ Needed for anabolism, produced in catabolism  ○ Autotrophic CO​  fixation  2​ ■ Calvin cycle ­ C2​  dark reaction  ● Reductive pentose phosphate reaction  ● In chloroplast stroma (eukaryotes), carboxysome (bacteria)  ● 3ATP and 1NADPH to fix 1CO​ 2 ● Phases  ○ 1. Carboxylation  ■ RuBisCO catalyzes CO​   2 ○ 2. Reduction  ○ 3. Regeneration  ● Produces carbs  ■ rTCA cycle  ● Chemolithoautotrophs  ● Reductive is opposite oxidative TCA  ○ Sugar synthesis  ■ Gluconeogenesis  ● “Reversal” of glycolysis  ■ Monosaccharides  ■ Peptidoglycan  ● NAG and NAM linked by transpeptidation  ● Cell wall formation  ○ Autolysins weaken and build wall for division  ○ Amino acid synthesis  ■ TCA cycle intermediates have C skeleton remodeled and amino group added  ■ N assimilation  ● Component of protein, nucleic acid, coenzymes  ● From NH​3​ NO​3​ 2​   ● Ammonia incorporation  ○ Transaminase, GDH, GOGAT  ● Nitrate reduction  ○ Reduce nitrate/nitrite to ammonia  ● N2​ fixation  ○ Reduce N​  to ammonia  2​ ○ bacteria/archaea  ○ A LOT of ATP needed  ■ S assimilation  ● Sulfate = inorganic  ○ Reduced to H​2​ then formed into cysteine  ■ Branching biosynthesis pathways  ● Saves energy  ○ Anapleorotic reactions  ■ Replenish intermediates  ■ CO​2​fixation  ● PEP + CO​  → oxaloacetate + P​  2​ i ● Pyruvate + CO​2​+ ATP + H2​O → oxaloacetate + ADP + P​i ■ Glyoxylate  ● Generates oxaloacetate  ○ Purine/Pyrimidine Synthesis  ^AG ^CT  ■ P assimilation  ● Inorganic P = P​  i ○ Incorporated through ATP formation  ● Organic P esters  ○ Hydrolyzed to Pi  ○ Lipid Synthesis  ■ Fatty acids synthesized to form lipid when added to other molecules  ■ Requires ATP and NADPH 


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