New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Botany Week 4 Notes

by: Sophie Menos

Botany Week 4 Notes PLSC101010

Sophie Menos

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

9/20/16 9/22/16 Again, these notes cover what will be on Tuesday's quiz. The stuff marked with "!" are things Dr. Bais said to remember
Botany I
Class Notes
dark, reactions, Osmosis
25 ?




Popular in Botany I

Popular in Plant Science

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophie Menos on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PLSC101010 at University of Delaware taught by Bais,Harsh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Botany I in Plant Science at University of Delaware.


Reviews for Botany Week 4 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/23/16
Chapter 7 9/20/16 ▯ Oxidative phosphorylation – breaking down electron carriers to generate ATP ▯ photo phosphorylation – dissociation of water to produce oxygen and ATP ▯ ▯ Carbon Reactions  dark reactions – light independent  the energy and reducing power from the light reactions are used for a variety of processes, including the Calvin Cycle = C reduction ▯ ▯ Calvin Cycle/Dark Reaction/Carbon Reaction/PCR cycle  CO2 Is fixed and reduced to sugars  CO2 (yields) sugar (CH2O)  sugars/saccharides/carbohydrates  in stroma (light independent)  types of sugar units: o hexose 6C o PENTSE 5C o TETROSE 4C o TRIOSE 3C o monosaccharide: 1 sugar unit (glucose) – reducing sugar/highly reactive o disaccharide 2 sugar units (sucrose) – non reducing sugar/stable o oligosaccharide: a few units (2-10) o polysaccharide: polymer of sugar units (> 10)  CO2 + C5 (YIELDS) C6 (YIELDS) 2 C3  RuBPc – enzyme needed to get to C6  C5 = RuBP  final product glyceralidehyde-3-P (G3P) Chapter 7 9/20/16 o can become sucrose or starch  photorespiration o rubisco can also react with O2 to form 2-P-glycolate which is converted back to 3-phosphoglyceric o O2 is used o CO2 is released ▯ ▯ Mechanisms to reduce photorespiration  two alternative pathways of CO2 fixation with reduced/no photorespiration  C4 metabolism o key: CO2 fixed by PEP-carboxylase (PEPC) instead of rubisco o PEP + CO2 (yields) oxaloacetate (C4 acid) o enzyme = PEPC o PEPC is not sensitive to oxygen/has high affinity for CO2 o later: CO2 released from C4 acid and fixed by rubisco o C4 metabolism plants fixes CO2 in two different cells:  bundle sheath  mesophyll o basic difference between C4 and C3  C4 mesophyll cells are arranged around bundle sheath cells  C3 mesophyll cells are arranged randomly around the leaf o C4 metabolism: adaptation to high temperature and drought  Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) o CO2 fixation and sugar production are separated in time (within same cell) o disadvantage they are slow growing: cactus example o stomata open at night instead of daytime ▯ Chapter 7 9/20/16 ▯ Important for quiz  C3, C4, CAM plants o examples  C3  rice  C4  corn  CAM  pineapple o differences between 3  photorespiration  C3 go through max amount of photorespiration  C4 and CAM go through min amount of photorespiration  C3 go through photosynthesis all in one cell  C4 go through photosynthesis in two cells  mesophyll cell: c4 pathway  bundle sheath: calvin cycle  CAM go through C4 pathway at night malate is stored in vacuole, then calvin cycle is during the day o disadvantages of the 3  C3 are to vulnerable to photorespiration  C4 carbon fixation takes a lot of ATP therefore they can’t grow in hot, dry conditions  CAM plants grow very slowly  sink o growing tissue that needs photosynthates  fruits, young roots/leaves, mature roots  source o photosynthesizing tissue that exports photosynthates  mature leaves  allocation o how much photosynthate is used for storage as sucrose/starch and how much is metabolized  partitioning o how much photosynthate is kept in the source tissue and how much is exported Chapter 4 09/24/2016 ▯ Terms  diffusion o the process by which molecules spread from high concentration to low concentration  osmosis o the process by which fluid passes through semipermeable membranes and moves from solute that is high in concentration to low in concentration  solute o dissolved substance  solvent o dissolving substance  concentration o hypotonic  low solute concentration (more water) o hypertonic  high solute concentration (less water) o isotonic  equal solute concentration o ALL OSMOTIC REACTIONS MOVE FROM HYPERTONIC TO HYPOTONIC UNTIL SOLUTION IS ISOTONIC o when a cell enters a hypotonic solution it swells, when it enters a hypertonic solution, it shrinks and dies  osmotic potential o potential of H2O to move from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution across a semi-permeable membrane  major nutrients o 96% nutrients are H, O, N, C  macronutrient o 4% nutrients are P, K, S, Mg, Ca  micronutrient o <4% nutrients are Fe, Zn, Mn, Cl, B, CU, Ni, Mo ▯ ▯ properties of water  good solvent  floats if a solid  mostly liquid (0-100 C)  resists change in temperature  highly polar  hydrogen bonds  water molecules “cling” to each other o cohesion  water molecules cling to each other o adhesion  water molecules cling to other polar surfaces ▯ ▯ passive processes  require no energy  driven by diffusion o osmosis o short distance o high solute concentration (low H2O)  driven by pressure o bulk flow o not over membrane o long distance ▯ ▯


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.