Botany Week 4 Notes
Botany Week 4 Notes PLSC101010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophie Menos on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PLSC101010 at University of Delaware taught by Bais,Harsh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Botany I in Plant Science at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Chapter 7 9/20/16 ▯ Oxidative phosphorylation – breaking down electron carriers to generate ATP ▯ photo phosphorylation – dissociation of water to produce oxygen and ATP ▯ ▯ Carbon Reactions dark reactions – light independent the energy and reducing power from the light reactions are used for a variety of processes, including the Calvin Cycle = C reduction ▯ ▯ Calvin Cycle/Dark Reaction/Carbon Reaction/PCR cycle CO2 Is fixed and reduced to sugars CO2 (yields) sugar (CH2O) sugars/saccharides/carbohydrates in stroma (light independent) types of sugar units: o hexose 6C o PENTSE 5C o TETROSE 4C o TRIOSE 3C o monosaccharide: 1 sugar unit (glucose) – reducing sugar/highly reactive o disaccharide 2 sugar units (sucrose) – non reducing sugar/stable o oligosaccharide: a few units (2-10) o polysaccharide: polymer of sugar units (> 10) CO2 + C5 (YIELDS) C6 (YIELDS) 2 C3 RuBPc – enzyme needed to get to C6 C5 = RuBP final product glyceralidehyde-3-P (G3P) Chapter 7 9/20/16 o can become sucrose or starch photorespiration o rubisco can also react with O2 to form 2-P-glycolate which is converted back to 3-phosphoglyceric o O2 is used o CO2 is released ▯ ▯ Mechanisms to reduce photorespiration two alternative pathways of CO2 fixation with reduced/no photorespiration C4 metabolism o key: CO2 fixed by PEP-carboxylase (PEPC) instead of rubisco o PEP + CO2 (yields) oxaloacetate (C4 acid) o enzyme = PEPC o PEPC is not sensitive to oxygen/has high affinity for CO2 o later: CO2 released from C4 acid and fixed by rubisco o C4 metabolism plants fixes CO2 in two different cells: bundle sheath mesophyll o basic difference between C4 and C3 C4 mesophyll cells are arranged around bundle sheath cells C3 mesophyll cells are arranged randomly around the leaf o C4 metabolism: adaptation to high temperature and drought Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) o CO2 fixation and sugar production are separated in time (within same cell) o disadvantage they are slow growing: cactus example o stomata open at night instead of daytime ▯ Chapter 7 9/20/16 ▯ Important for quiz C3, C4, CAM plants o examples C3 rice C4 corn CAM pineapple o differences between 3 photorespiration C3 go through max amount of photorespiration C4 and CAM go through min amount of photorespiration C3 go through photosynthesis all in one cell C4 go through photosynthesis in two cells mesophyll cell: c4 pathway bundle sheath: calvin cycle CAM go through C4 pathway at night malate is stored in vacuole, then calvin cycle is during the day o disadvantages of the 3 C3 are to vulnerable to photorespiration C4 carbon fixation takes a lot of ATP therefore they can’t grow in hot, dry conditions CAM plants grow very slowly sink o growing tissue that needs photosynthates fruits, young roots/leaves, mature roots source o photosynthesizing tissue that exports photosynthates mature leaves allocation o how much photosynthate is used for storage as sucrose/starch and how much is metabolized partitioning o how much photosynthate is kept in the source tissue and how much is exported Chapter 4 09/24/2016 ▯ Terms diffusion o the process by which molecules spread from high concentration to low concentration osmosis o the process by which fluid passes through semipermeable membranes and moves from solute that is high in concentration to low in concentration solute o dissolved substance solvent o dissolving substance concentration o hypotonic low solute concentration (more water) o hypertonic high solute concentration (less water) o isotonic equal solute concentration o ALL OSMOTIC REACTIONS MOVE FROM HYPERTONIC TO HYPOTONIC UNTIL SOLUTION IS ISOTONIC o when a cell enters a hypotonic solution it swells, when it enters a hypertonic solution, it shrinks and dies osmotic potential o potential of H2O to move from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution across a semi-permeable membrane major nutrients o 96% nutrients are H, O, N, C macronutrient o 4% nutrients are P, K, S, Mg, Ca micronutrient o <4% nutrients are Fe, Zn, Mn, Cl, B, CU, Ni, Mo ▯ ▯ properties of water good solvent floats if a solid mostly liquid (0-100 C) resists change in temperature highly polar hydrogen bonds water molecules “cling” to each other o cohesion water molecules cling to each other o adhesion water molecules cling to other polar surfaces ▯ ▯ passive processes require no energy driven by diffusion o osmosis o short distance o high solute concentration (low H2O) driven by pressure o bulk flow o not over membrane o long distance ▯ ▯
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