Chapter 20: Transformation of eruope
Chapter 20: Transformation of eruope 70054
Alabama A&M University
Popular in History 102
Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tristen Griffith on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 70054 at Alabama A&M University taught by Dr.Halverson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see History 102 in History at Alabama A&M University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Chapter 20: Transformation of Europe Thursday, September 22, 2016 9:36 PM Fragmentation of Western Christendom o Martin Luther He condemned the Catholic Church The Printing Press helped to spread his ideas Luther's writings Spread all throughout Europe He called for the reform of Christendom Advocated for 1. Closure of monasteries 2. Translation of the bible 3. Putting an end to priestly authority Believed salvation could only be achieved by the personal declaration of faith Bible was Christian Authority o Reform outside Germany Germany fueled the movement to reform the Church along Luther's teachings Several Princes of the Holy roman empire accepted Luther's views as opportunity to expand power Many German cities passed laws that required all religious services to be protestant o John Calvin French lawyer converted to protestant and fled to France He moved to Switzerland and organized The publisher of "Institutes of the Christian Religion" 1. It was a book that clarified Protestant teachings His Ideas differed from Martin Luther in that: 1. He emphasized the awesome power of God 2. He believed in predestination or that God pre- determined who would go to Heaven and who would go to Hell 3. Believed that you COULD NOT earn salvation These differences in beliefs would lead him to found the Calvinist o The English Reformation At first the protestant reformation face political and religious resistance in England Political resistance lightened when King Henry VIII went against the Pope and separated from the church By 1560 English was officially Protestant The Catholic Church Reformation o The catholic reformation was a response to the Protestant reformation o Catholic church tried to reform in order to persuade Protestants to return to the church o Council of Trent Assembly of high church officers to address matters of doctrine and reform Defined Catholic theology in detail Demanded church authorities observe strict standards of morality Required priests to attend seminaries o The society of Jesus Founded by St. Ignatis Jesuits= members of society of Jesus Jesuits had to complete education in theology, philosophy, languages, history, and science Held a reputation for discipline and determination Most prominent Christian missionaries Witch Hunts and Religious wars o Witch Hunts Religious divisions fueled social/political conflict 2nd to wars witch hunts= most destructive violence A Witch is a person w/supernatural powers derived from the devil Witch craft became a convenient explanation for all unfortunate events Witch hunting peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries Over 60,000 people were tried and killed 95% of "witches" were poor, old, single or widowed women o Religious wars Protestant/ Catholic tension led to outright war The most famous religious war= Thirty years war 1. The Thirty Years war was caused by the holy roman Emperor trying to force his people to rejoin the catholic church 2. It was the most destructive European conflict until the 20th century 3. It created more problems than they started with Consolidation of Sovereign States o Centralizing Monarchs capitalized on religious struggles to enhance their authority and came together to maintain order among independent competitive European states o Attempted Revival of the Empire Charles the 5th 1. Tried to revive the Holy Roman Empire 2. Domestic and foreign conflicts stopped him from building his empire o The new monarchs In the absence of imperial power, public affairs fell to regional states Most powerful states were England France and Spain 1. Their rulers were known as the new monarchs Finance 1. New Monarchs sought to enhance treasuries by developing new sources of finance 2. French and Spanish created revenue by increasing taxes 3. English raised fines/fees for royal services and liquidated church property State Power 1. New income= larger administrative staff 2. More administrative staff allowed monarchs to collect taxes and implement policies more reliably 3. More money also meant increased control over nobles Spanish Inquisition 1. It was funded by the monarchs of Spain Fernando and Isabel 2. The original goal was to weed out Islam and Judaism 3. Search broadened to include protestants during the reformation 4. It was used to deter nobles from accepting protestant view Constitutional States o After the 30 years war Europe developed along 2 lines Constitutional states (Netherlands/ England) Monarchy (Spain France Austria Russia…) o English civil wars Constitutional government came after the English Civil War Political disputes arose between king and parliament over taxes Religious disputes arose between Anglican King and Calvinists 1641 King Charles rose and army against parliament 1. He was later captured put on trial and executed King James was allowed to take the thrown again in 1660 1. He tried to convert England to Catholicism 2. To get rid of him by inviting his daughter to invade England 3. She would rule in cooperation with Parliament Absolute Monarchies o Stood the foundation of the "divine right of kings" o French Monarchy was the largest Absolute monarchy King louis XIV otherwise known as the SUN KING 1. He declared his self the State of France 2. Built the city of Versailles in 1680 It was the largest city in France King louis forced nobles to live there in order to diminish their power o Russia as an Absolute Monarchy Absolutism in Russia had the highest potential as an absolute monarchy Tsars of the Romanov Dynasty tightly centralized the government Most important tsar is Peter 1 1. Known as Peter the Great 2. Tried to Westernize Russian military, politics, society 3. He reformed the Navy 4. Improved administrative efficiency 5. Diminished nobility through Westernization 6. Created St Petersburg Catherine the Great 1. Catherine was the most able of Peter's successors 2. Her Goal was to make Russia a Great Power Worked to improve govt efficiency Promoted economic development Even worked to improve serfdom 3. Her desire for reform cooled when she saw that it inspired people to challenge he rule 4. After a revolution attempt Catherine first concern was autocratic rule The Peace of Westphalia 1. Officially ended the 30 year war 2. Laid foundation for a system of independent competing states 3. Treaty said European states regarded one another as sovereign Mutually recognized right to own domestic and religious affairs Political/ Diplomatic affairs to be conducted by states 4. Did NOT bring an end to war Balance of Power 1. Maintained balance by shifting Alliances 2. Avoid All-Powerful states Military Development 1. Frequent wars weakened states but strengthened society 2. European States fought to develop the most expert military leadership 3. States began to organize military acadelmics 4. Weapons race between European states Early Capitalist Society Rapidly Expanding population and urbanization led to the creation of capitalism Population Growth/Urbanization Columbian Exchange enriched European diets Potato=inexpensive source of carbohydrates Better nourished population are less susceptible to illness Birth rate did not rise dramatically but the mortality rate decreased significantly Nature of Capitalism Economic Growth=rise of capitalism Capitalism: private parties make and sell their goods Private parties own everything and hire their own workers and therefore they determine market price Center of capitalism is that businessmen can compete with one another Based on supply and demand Joint Stock Company Especially important institutions capitalism Large trading companies spread out the risk attached to expensive business Took advantage of extensive communications an trade networks Organized commercial venture on a large scale Politics and Empires Capitalism thrived with active support of government authorities Merchants were of high influence in England and Netherlands England and Dutch governments recognized an individuals right to own private property Government protected individuals financial interest Imperial expansion and colonial rule were crucial to capitalism Adam Smith and the Capitalist market Wrote a Book on Capitalism called the Wealth of Nations Championed free, unregulated markets Believes society benefits when individuals pursue own economic interest and trade freely He putting out system Capitalism encouraged Europeans to find new ways to manufacture goods Guild fixed price and wage and werent concerned with profit Putting out system: delivered unfinished materials to rural houses The nuclear family Capitalism favored the nuclear family as the priciple unit of society Capitalism allowed families to indepently make their own money Love has become more important in marrige than money Relationship between parent and child stronger Capitalism may not have cause these experiences but has influenced Transformation of Scientific thinking o Because of all the new reforms/ideas Europe underwent intellectual and cultural transformation o The Re-conception of the Universe The Ptolemaic Universe 1.Almagest: Earth stationary center of the universe Planetary movement 1. Ptolemaic Theory did not match the movement of the planets 2. Discovered that plantes rotated and revolved The copernicus Universe 1. Nicolaus Copernicus broke the Ptolemaic Theory 2. Proved the sun was in the center of the Earth Threatened Christian belief o Scientific Revolution Copernicus inspired astronomers to examine the heavens using observational data and mathematical reasoning Transformed the way we observe the natural world o Galileo Galelilei Proved that the Heavens were flawed worked with Kepler to finally disprove Ptolemaic theory o Isaac Newton Father of modern science, English Mathematician Untied Earth and Heaven Scientific Method
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