Wildlife Week 4 Notes
Wildlife Week 4 Notes ENWC 201
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophie Menos on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENWC 201 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. McCarthy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Wildlife conservation & Ecology in WIlldlife Conservation and Ecology at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Animal Behavior 9/20/16 behavior • the action or reaction of an organisms exhibits in response to external or internal stimuli behavioral ecology • the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior • the roles of behavior in enabling animals to adapt to their ecological niches Animal behavior • learned behavior o range from simple changes to complex problem solving o some involve combination of innate behaviors and experience o imprinting: learning limited to a specific critical period in life and is generally irreversible o Whooping Crane imprinting case study § First try: whooping crane egg into sandhill crane nest ú failed because of sexual imprinting; only wanted to mate with sandhill crane § Second try: population in florida ú failed because non migratory, fell prey to bob cats § Third try: parents are human dressed up as whooping cranes ú successful because imprinting • innate rhythms o built into our genetic make up as animals o Circadian rhythm § approximately one day § daily basis activity of animals with regular pattern of about 24 hours ú feeding, sleeping, and singing § adjusted by external cues ú sunlight § nocturnal ú active at night § diurnal ú active during the day § crepuscular ú two peaks of activity: dusk and dawn o Circannual rhythms Animal Behavior 9/20/16 § approximately one year § seasonal behavior patterns ú molting, breeding, hibernation, migration § influenced by day length § migration ú periodic movements from one location to another ú response to changing resources • reproductive behaviors o courtship § physical characteristics along with ritualized displays and behaviors to increase intraspecific recognition § visual or auditory o mating systems § monogamy ú pair bond with a single member of the opposite sex § polygamy ú bonds with many member of the opposite sex ú polyandry • one female many males • ex phalarope ú polygyny • one male many females • ex deer • social behavior o behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species o communication § provokes a response without acting directly on the receiver o helpful behavior § alpha and beta males o altruism § warning calls for members of same species § usually attract predator to you, so sacrifice for others § ex vervet monkey • habitat selection and territorial behaviors o habitat selection § choose a habitat offering best success § some defend areas that are better than others o territorial behavior § defense of habitat selection Animal Behavior 9/20/16 § home range ú area included in the daily seasonal and annual travel of an animal § territory ú area defended by an individual/group against intrusion by others of the same species (smaller than home range) • group behaviors o kin selection § natural selection operating on he interactions between closely related cooperating individuals § call more when they are close to relatives o thermoregulation § members of species huddle for warmth/shade § ex bobwhite quail o predator avoidance § confusion ú predator sees so many, it gets confused § dilution ú protection in numbers ú less likely to get eaten in large groups than small ones o predator detection § many eyes hypothesis ú group predator vigilance increases ú faster detection ú some look for predators while others eat o finding food § group searching for food § cooperation among members ú predators Biodiversity 9/23/16 9:26 PM biodiversity • the diversity of genes, species, and ecosystems in a region hierarchy • genetic diversity o the number of different kinds of genes in a population or species o mutations o immigration § introduces new genetic material to the population o sexual reproduction § generated new genetic combinations that may be more successful in the long run § population size ú small vs large • inherently less diversity • species diversity o the measure of different species present in an area o some areas are normally high in species diversity, while others are normally low o factors § history ú poles vs tropics § immigration ú may introduce species to an area where they were not previously present § size of the area ú the larger the area considered, the higher the species diversity will be § human activity • ecosystem diversity o the number of kinds of ecosystems present in an area o the larger the area studies, the more ecosystems that will be present biological value • higher biodiversity = higher ecosystem services o four broad categories § provisioning services ú agriculture ú forestry ú fisheries § regulating services ú climate regulation ú carbon sequestration ú water purification § supporting services ú nutrient cycling ú seed dispersal ú pollination § cultural services ú recreation ú spiritual ú cultural ethical value • organisms have an intrinsic value to exist • there is value in just knowing there are wild areas still out there
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