POLS 220- Week 5 Class 2
POLS 220- Week 5 Class 2 POLS 220
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Landry Notetaker on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 220 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Bryan P. Frost in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see World Politics in Political Science at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Great Britain (9.22.16) British History Continued Beginning of the Anglican Church (Episcopalian Church) - Differences between England and US in regard to Religion o England has an established Church recognized in law British Monarch is head of the Anglican Church o England: no separation of church and state o US: first amendment - Henry the 8 th o Establishing the Anglican Church o Events that led to this: Pope at the time refused to annul Henry’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon Unless he gave them more power in England Wandering eyes for Anne Boyland Began to strip religious powers from the Catholic Church Infest those powers in himself Pope furious o Continue to do this-> excommunicate from church Henry pushes through a law that sanctions what he has done o Look to him for these religious powers Pope excommunicates Henry and the entire country o Henry makes himself Pope Law Do not swear allegiance to me and as a Pope then he will cut off their head o Swear allegiance to Henry Created a completely new religion Anglican Church Anglican Church began to create, people bought into new church, enormous distrust of the Pope and Catholicism in England Conflicts between Parliament and the Crown - Nagging question: Who at the end of the day has ultimate power? o Monarchy or Parliament o Two events that settled this question favoring Parliament Civil war of 1642 and Glorious Revolution of 1688 Firmly and finally established Parliament’s authority over the monarchy - Civil War of 1642 st o Pitted the monarchists who supported Charles the 1 against the Parliamentarians Erupts over question of who had ultimate authority o In the 1600s, Parliament was firmly established o Charles the 1 did nothing to ingratiate himself to Parliament Devoted husband and to his children Not capable of dealing with these events Convinced of his divine right power as king o Charles had enough of these compromises with House of Commons Decided to disband parliament for twenty years Charles Personal Rule o Able to squeeze money out of various sources without the House of Commons raise any new taxes o Scottish Revolt Needed a lot of money Had to call Parliament back in session o Parliament was furious for having been ignored for many years Willing to give money but wanted a good bargain in exchange Charles sees Parliament as a bigger threat than the Scottish Flees London and the civil war begins o Until 1649, England is in the midst of a long and terrible civil war between the king and Parliament st Charles 1 was beheaded Parliamentarians are victorious England ruled by Parliament and no longer the monarchy The person in charge of Parliaments army that defeats Charles is Oliver Cromwell and he decides to take over the country and establishes a military and religious dictatorship for eleven years (Puritanical and Military dictatorship) After Cromwell dies, the English get a little weepy Beheading Charles was a rash action st Restore the monarchy by bringing in Charles the 1 son Charles 2 ndand he becomes the new king in England in 1660 o Charles 2 nd Anything but like his father Didn’t care about ruling, let Parliament decide Mindful of what happened to his father Notorious philanderer Dies and the question is who are we going to bring back to power Decide to turn to the Scottish monarch, nd James 2 who is King of Scotland Scotland and England will be united under a single monarch He was Catholic and firmly believed in divine right o Made a lot of people in England nervous He began to appoint Catholic advisers Openly attended mass began to appoint Catholics into high levels in the military o people think he will overthrow the Anglican church in the glorious revolution of 1678, high levels of the arndtocracy in Britain, fearful of what James 2 will do, overthrow him before he overthrows them new civil war is on the horizon nd James 2 sees that people are plotting against and sees the country is against him, flees England for France and lives the rest of his life in exile No bloodshed-> glorious revolution o William and Mary of Orange King and queen of Netherlands nd Mary is James 2 daughter William is Mary’s husband o Both of Protestant Satisfies everyone o In 1689, Parliament draws up the English Bill of Rights Explicitly says, signed by William and Mary, that no laws can be passed, no taxes than be raised, without the consent of Parliament They still have tremendous power over Parliament but Parliament is clearly in charge and monarchy is depend on Parliament Monarchs lose more and more power and parliament gains more and more power until today when monarch is just a figurehead When do the people come on to the scenes in British history politically? - Early 19 century, that the people finally have a voice in British politics o Arrival of the people Great Reform Act of 1832 House of Commons is an elected body o Very few people allowed to vote o Bought a seat o Corrupt and unfair system o Tilted toward the aristocracy Electoral districts begin to be redrawn to make them a bit more fair and representative Open up the voting franchise to a few more people Throughout the 1800s, other reform acts follow o Each reform act redraws the district to make them more fair than before o Few more people in the franchise Women were NOT given right to vote until 1918 and had to be over 30 o 1928 age 21 women could vote Unwritten document - Great Britain does NOT have a constitution o Unwritten Constitution Constitution A document that lays out the rules guiding the system and how to change those rules when and if you want o Four things that make up or determine how Britain operates politically Acts of Parliament The House of Commons (Parliament) can decide at any moment they want what to do, how to run things o Change those rules anytime they want for whatever reason they want o Illegal for anyone to disobey those laws o Parliament decides its own constitutionality o A future act of parliament is the only thing that can change Parliament Fixed elections Common Law Judicial decisions and precedents that have been decided in the courts Traditions and Expected practices prime minister goes to monarchy to ask for permission Books, commentaries written by experts and authorities who say this is how the system has operated for many years o The fundamental principle of British politics parliamentary sovereignty Parliamentary sovereignty Parliament can make and unmake any law that they want and no authority/court/monarchy can override what parliament decides except parliament o Final arbiter of everything Sovereign and supreme British Monarchy - Britain makes a critical distinction between a head of state and the head of government o Head of state Monarch o Head of government Prime minister - Sharply differentiates Britain from us o The president is leader of government and ceremonial things (state dinners) - The queen is symbolic person o No real political power - Incarnate the nation - Represent Britain’s traditions - Supposed to be models of moral propriety - Monarchy is supposed to stay out of politics - Provides stability for the country o Forever while government is not - Advise the prime minister (easier access to prime minister) - Grants election - Once a law is passed by House of Commons, it does not become a law officially until the queen signs it o 1708, veto legislation Monarchy had lost the power of veto - Above politics - Reads speech that the government wrote - Richest woman in the world
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