Psych 101, Week 2 Notes
Psych 101, Week 2 Notes PSY 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jill LaSala on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Burlington County College taught by Haynes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro Psychology in Psychology at Burlington County College.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Intro to Psychology 9/19/2016 Lecture#2 Brain Development ● Central Nervous System (CNS) ○ Brain ○ Spinal Cord actually an extension of the brain. ○ The basic building blocks of the nervous system is the neuron (brain cell)(Test Q) ○ Psychology is based on thoughts, feelings, and actions that come from the nervous system. ● Brain Development: Neurons = Brain Cells ○ Neurons do not touch, but communicate. ○ Dendrite receives info → nucleus processes that info → axon transmits the info down the axon and off to another cell. ○ Synapse: space between neurons. ○ Myelin sheath develops over the axon as we get older (THINK: A baby cannot do math right out of the womb). ○ Neurons begin to develop at about 10 to 25 weeks and leave us with almost all of the neurons we’ll have for life. ○ Neurons develop at a rate of 4,000/second. ○ The brain is use it or lose it for the first 10 years of life. ● Brain Development: Neurotransmitters ○ Neurotransmitters: chemicals that transmit info from one neuron to another. ■ Dopamine decreased levels can result in Parkinson’s disease, a surplus can cause schizophrenia, and levels are tampered with through drug abuse. ■ Serotonin moods, sleep, aggression, depression ■ SSRI (antidepressants) stands for Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. ■ Reuptake is when a neurotransmitter is secreted by a neuron and reabsorbed by that neuron before it has a chance to communicate with the next neuron. ● Brain Development: The Hemispheres ○ The cerebrum is broken down into two parts. ■ Left Hemisphere is responsible for language, logic, and the right side of the body. ■ Right Hemisphere is responsible for nonlinguistic, emotions, left side of the body. ○ These two hemispheres are separated by the corpus callosum which keeps info going from one half to the other. ● Brain Development: The Anatomy of the Brain ○ Frontal lobe = thinking, memory, behavior, and movement. ○ Parietal lobe = language and touch. ○ Temporal lobe = hearing, learning, feelings. ○ Occipital lobe = sight. ○ Cerebellum = balance and coordination. ○ Brain Stem = breathing, heart rate, temperature. ● Plasticity of the Brain ○ Healthy neurons may be able to compensate for the loss of other neurons. ○ Studies have shown that the adult brain can generate new neurons. ● Brain Testing ○ EEG measures and records electrical activity in the brain with 610 electrodes (to detect where there is/is not energy in the brain). ○ CT Scan shows where structures are damaged (consists of computer enhanced xrays at many angles). ○ PET Scan examines brain function by mapping actual activity in the brain over time (radioactive chemicals are used to provide a color coded map that pinpoints where certain activities take place). ○ MRI provides both structural and functional info, also looks for activity. ● Mirror Neurons ○ Live in part of the brain where imitation happens. ○ Muscle memory you learn something when you do it enough times (i.e. dancing). ● Endocrine System ○ Consists of glands that secrete chemicals into bloodstream that help with bodily function. ○ Chemicals are called hormones. ● Endocrine Glands ○ Pancreas in the stomach, controls digestion. ○ Adrenal glands in the kidneys, controls blood pressure. ○ Pancreas manages insulin and controls use of blood sugar levels. ○ _____ controlled by the hypothalamus. ○ Pituitary gland is where it all comes from. ● Limbic System ○ Our memory and emotion live there. ○ Hippocampus = memories ● Language Development ○ Broca’s Area if damaged we have trouble speaking. ○ Warnicke’s Area if damaged we have trouble comprehending language. ● Concussions ○ Is a traumatic brain injury (TBI) ○ Leads to temporary loss of brain functions but not always a loss of consciousness. ○ 15% of all high school sports injuries. ○ 2nd impact syndrome deadly outcome of repeated head injury which can cause brain swelling, coma, and/or death. ● Stem Cells ○ Brain tends to heal naturally but brain damage is still very real. ○ Brain grafts (the implant of healthy tissue into damaged brain) may be on the horizon. ○ Stem cells have the capacity to develop into most types of human cells. ● Embryonic Stem Cells ○ Taken from live embryos 57 days old. ○ Results in the destruction of the embryo. ○ No, the scientific community if not trying to harvest babies. ● Adult Stem Cells ○ Umbilical cord stem cells. ○ Placenta stem cells. ○ Adult stem cells ○ Can even be taken from a corpse up to 20 hours after death.
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