Animal Science 320, Notes Week 5
Animal Science 320, Notes Week 5 AN S 320
Popular in Animal Feeds and Feeding
Popular in Animal Science
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Garrison on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AN S 320 at Iowa State University taught by Morris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Animal Feeds and Feeding in Animal Science at Iowa State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Properties of grains contd. o Corn Low protein (8-10% DM) Low Lysine and Tryptophan High Leucine Low Ca (0.03%) Moderate P (0.30%) (Ca:P ratio 2:1) 50% of P bound to Phytate (70-80% in corn) Vitamins: High in beta-carotene, thiamin, niacin (unavailable to monogastrics) Low in other B vitamins Use of corn – livestock diets o Swine and Poultry Supplemental nutrients needed – AAs, available P, Ca, Salt, Trace minerals, Fat soluble vitamins, B vitamins o Ruminants and Horses Limited by fiber requirements Fiber requirement met by forages Supplemental nutrients needed – Crude Protein (CP), P, Ca, Salt, Trace Minerals, Fat soluble vitamins Variations – corn composition o Genetic variants High lysine (opaque-2) Reduced amount of protein needed in Monogastric diets Limitations: lower yields; soft kernels (subject to ear rot) Waxy corn 100% amylopectin Improved starch digestibility Variable improvements in animal performance High Amylose Corn >50% Amylose; high fructose corn syrup High Oil Corn 7-8% oil; may improve feed efficiency and rate of gain Low Phytate Corn Increased digestibility of P in corn; reduced amount of supplemental P needed; reduced P excretion Ground Ear Corn Also known as Corn or Cob Meal Contains 20% cob; 70 lbs/bushel; 87% TDN, DM basis; 28% NDF Uses: not used in swine or poultry o Can be used for ruminants or horses If used, reduce amount of forage in diet o Harmful constituents – corn grain Aflatoxin – carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus molds on corn Problem in drought stricken corn Sorghum (Milo) – drought resistant o Energy value: 85-98% value corn; require processing o 8-12% CP – most limiting AA: Lysine o Low Ca o Moderate P – 50% P bound to Phytate o Uses in diets: could replace corn in diets if processed (ruminant and monogastrics) Oats – palatable (DON’T NEED TO KNOW NUMBERS) o Lower TDN than corn due to a high NDF o Hulls poorly digested o Limiting AA – Lysine o Ca and P – same as other energy feeds (low Ca, moderate P) o Usage: Poultry, swine, finishing beef cattle: 20-40% corn Horses: 100% corn Barley o Energy: 83% (90% value of corn) – Ruminants Swine: 80% value of corn o Low NDF, poorly digested o Limiting AA – Lysine; higher CP than corn o Rolled but not finely ground o Uses: Finishing cattle and swine – 100% corn Prevent bloat in feedlot cattle in rumen – rapidly fermented Lactating sows – 85% corn Dairy cows – 50% corn Wheat – Energy (high TDN) o Starch properties – rapidly digested (lactic acidosis and bloat in cattle) Processing considerations – doughy in mouth if finely ground Low palatability o Has Xylans (carb structure), low fiber, sticky Supplement with xylanase (additive) if fed to poultry Rye – starch properties resemble wheat o Unpalatable o Could contain ergot – fungus producing toxic alkaloids Alkaloids cause vasoconstriction Abortions in cattle; gangrene – loss of hooves, tails, ears Triticale – hybrid of wheat and rye o Unpalatable; susceptible to ergot o Use in rations – similar to rye (limited) o More common seen as forage (hay/grazing); same with wheat (straw) Grain Summary: o High energy (TDN) o 50% of P is bound to phytate o Limiting AA – Lysine o Oats: high fiber content o Wheat: Xylans, gummy mouth o Rye: unpalatable; Ergot o Triticale: wheat and rye Fats and Oils – energy dense o Types: animal fats, vegetable fats, blends, salts of FAs Animal fats: Types: choice white grease, beef tallow, poultry fat (pet industry), fish oil Characteristic: highly saturated Vegetable oils/fats: Types: corn oil, soybean oil, canola oil, cottonseed oil, linseed (flaxseed oil) Forms: free oils, whole oil seeds Characteristics: more unsaturated FAs Animal/vegetable blends: inexpensive Choice white grease; animal/vegetable blend; restaurant grease Ca salts of long-chain FAs – not cheap Sold as Megalac Bypass ruminal fat digestion and digested in SI Mostly used in diets of lactating dairy cows o Saturated vs unsaturated fats Saturated: more H atoms, no double bonds, solid at room temp Unsaturated: less H atoms, at least 1 double bond, liquid at room temp o Advantages High energy concentration of diet without high heat increment (2.25x more energy) Supplies essential FAs (linoleic – Omega 3 and linolenic – Omega 6) Higher absorption of fat soluble vitamins Lower dustiness of diet Improves palatability Lubricates equipment o Limitations Cost; feed storage characteristics - fats oxidize and go rancid; species very in amts to use o Ruminant rations Excessive amounts of fats alter rumen fermentation in ruminants Effects – reduce fiber digestion, feed intake, and milk fat percentage in dairy cows Relation to type of fat – unsaturated fats are toxic to rumen bacteria o Worst (free oils) – Tallow – Whole oil seeds – Less (Ca salts of FA) o Limitations fats fed to livestock Milk replacers for pigs, calves, or lambs – 20% of DM Nonruminants Dogs and cats – up to 40% DM Swine and poultry – 10% of DM Ruminants With normal ingredients – 5% of diet DM If fat source is ruminal protected – 7% of diet DM o Unique considerations Monogastrics take on characteristics of fat source Fat of Monogastric fed vegetable oils contain higher concentration of unsaturated FAs o Pork – soft, oily fat Difficult to process, short shelf life, discounted price o Poultry – all vegetable based diets Fat in yolk (Omega 3) (Flaxseed) Byproduct energy supplements o Molasses – high energy, low protein (mostly NPN; low CP), high palatability, high laxative (high mineral K) Use in livestock High energy concentration Palatant o Mechanism – sweetness and reduces dustiness o Use – starter diets for young livestock Pellet bindle Laxative for lactating cattle Liquid supplements (tubs) Problems with excessive amounts Difficult handling feed Rapid fermentation in rumen – low ruminal pH and lactic acidosis (bloat) Scours – young cattle Max amounts in diet Monogastric (horses) – 10% DM Ruminants – 5% DM o Beet Pulp – high TDN, low CP, low CF High energy forage; provide fiber Max amounts in diet Horses and beef cows – 50% of forage Finishing cattle – 15% of diet Lactating sows – 20% of diet Growing finishing pigs or poultry – don’t use – fiber too limited o Food wastes Concerns Variable composition, high fat, starch/sugar rapidly fermented in rumen, high salt concentration Max amounts in diet Growing finishing pigs – 50% of corn Young pigs (60 lb) or growing finishing cattle – 20% of diet Energy Feeds Summary: o 3 classes – grains, fats/oils, bakery by-products o Grains – 50% P bound to phytate o Low in lysine and Ca o Has several anti-nutritional factors o Contribute some protein/AAs Feed Grain Byproducts Reasons in rations – energy, fiber, protein Residual materials from grains after extraction of starch and/or oil Remaining components – protein, fiber, oil, minerals Protein quality of by-product feeds is NOT better than initial grain Wet milling vs dry milling o Wet milling Animal feeds: Steep water – water off of process o Beef cattle Feedlot – 12% diet DM Growing – liquid supplement and protein tubs, high TDN o Dairy cattle – 5% diet o Swine – 15% diet DM liquid diets o Poultry – 5% diet DM o Fish feed – 100% diet Corn gluten meal (fiber and S – limit use) o Beef cattle – depends on forage in diet o Dairy cows – lactating cows o Swine – in gestation as much as 90% o Poultry – layers receive as much as 30% o NOT used in companion animals Corn gluten feed (CGF) o Concerns Storage (spoilage – moisture) High S content – limit amounts fed to ruminants High fiber content – limit amounts fed to growing swine, poultry, companion animals and lactating dairy cows o Bright yellow in color o Beef cattle Feedlot – 50% protein supply, by pass protein Cows – not cost effective, no need for rumen undegradable protein (RUP) o Dairy cattle – lactating (50% supply), lysine limited) o Swine – 5% of diet, lysine limited o Poultry and companion animals – 5% of diet, contains xanthophyll Humans: Starch, sugar, syrup, corn oil o Dry milling Humans – corn meal, hominy, corn grits, ethanol Fat concentrated and protein DDG – dry distillers grain Beef cattle – best used: low starch, high fiber, some fat and protein o Limit to 40% diet DM – feedlot o Grazing cows, growing cattle, and calves – can use entire forage diet Dairy cattle – lactating (20%), growing heifers (limit to 15%) Swine – growing/finishing (20%), sows (50%) Poultry – limit to 15% diet DM Concerns o S content 0.4% S in ruminant diets
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