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HIST 202- 50 Week 1,2,3

by: Lexie Meier

HIST 202- 50 Week 1,2,3 HIST 202 - 50

Lexie Meier

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Ottoman Empire, Russia, Mughals and China
World History since 1700
Melvin E. Nichols
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lexie Meier on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 202 - 50 at University of Indianapolis taught by Melvin E. Nichols in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see World History since 1700 in History at University of Indianapolis.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
Tuesday, September 6, 2016 In class notes What weapon and military systems.. - Europe is introduced to several new invention. printing press, compass, & gunpowder These are used to revolutionize Europe / uphold the status quo • Militarily - Europeans struggles to incorporate gunpowder weapons into their armies and navies • Cannons were used to destroy castles leaving nobles nowhere to hide • Arquebuses, matchlocks,, & muskets destroyed nobilities’ monopoly on military might Vegetius’ description of Roman military method are incorporated in European • armies such as the Spanish tercio - would not step on the battle field unless they knew what they were doing Was there a monopoly? • Generally, whatever the West had, the non-Western World acquired within 10 years. • This relative parity lasted until 1885 and the advent of the Maxim machine gun • The West DID HAVE a monopoly on transoceanic navies that allowed force projection anywhere. EXAMPLE horse, eating horse, maggots grow on horse, they add pepper to make it eatable wont throw up Atlantic Trade States • Spain, Portugal, England France The Thirty Years War 1618-1648 • Counter-Reformation, the Catholics led by Jesuits, try once again to reconcile their religious control over Europe • 1618; HRE Ferdinand II, takes Bohemia 1 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 • Denmark Intervenes - they don't want the holy roman emperor on their doorstep • Sweden invades the north German plain - kills, rapes, hangs, drowns people • France comes in to stop the annihilation of opposition to the HRE- French were worried about power -France becomes the strongest state in Europe 30 Years War Results • Germany remains disunited until 1871 -2million people dead in Germany • France replaces the HRE as the strongest power • Europe remains fragmented politically & religiously • Hugo Grotius, Jus en Bellum (law in war), sets case for international war crimes - gives hope to people that people will be tried, that there will be limits to what you do in war fare. • Era of Limited War 1648-1789 - not burning cities Prequel Conclusions • By 1700 the world had left most elements of the Ancient and Medieval world behind. • The west revolutionized itself into states much stronger than previous systems would have allowed. • New transoceanic navies appeared than could span the globe. • Re-discovered military methods, new technologies, and powerful state systems made Western armies difficult to resist. Absolute Monarchy • Louis XIV 1643-1715, along, long reign • He called himself “The Sun King”, everything revolved around him • “most important position was the bed pan guy” • An absolute monarch; no power sharing • Sat in on every ministry meeting • Had entendants to check that the was were being followed everywhere. 2 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 • Created a court culture, nothing was done in his absence - women he could “do it” the best were the best • Louie talked about himself as “L’etat, c’es moi” Versailles • Designed by Louis XIV, best in the world. • Made to lure the intellectual world to Louis’s feet • Patron of all the arts • No bathrooms - simply did it outside • Set the Cultural Bar for everyone else to emulate- Jealous kings and queens would send an artist to find out how things were made. • Because of this, everyone who wants be successful learns to speak French, it was the dominant language in Europe • Lingua Franca; comes to mean “the dominant form of communication in a discipline” and symbolizes Frances cultural dominance “common language” Speak french to replicate the beauty. Shows cultural dominance The Country • Louis XIV expanded the country to it natural borders • Largest population, 20 million • Largest army Economy & Wealth • Mercantilist • Some manufacturing & trade • Wealthy, lots of agriculture • Empire with central North America, New Orleans, Canada, Quebec, Haiti some parts of India The War of Spanish Succession (one of Louies wars) • France wishes to break the power of the Habsburgs • King of Spain, Charles II, dies childless 3 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 • France back Louis’ nephew, Phillip V • Austria backs Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria • France fights all of Europe, 1701-1714 • The Peace of Utrecht & Restate allows a Valois ruller but he must denounce any claim to the French throne, Spain’s European empire dismantled Spain Climb to International Power • 1492- Fall of Granada & the end of the End of Reconquista (great crusades of europe) • 1492- Search for a route to the East Indies leads to the discovery of the Americas • 1494- Treaty Line of Tordesillas - when they drew this line their maps were off a little bit off • Gold and silver floods in from South America - used in the non-step wars that Spain was fighting • Charles V, HRE- a vast Empire • Phillip II, Leapnto, 1571 & the Spanish Armada, 158 • Spanish Galleon - one ship that had windows in the side to shoot guns • Queen Elizabeth took the “holy pee” from the churches because of gunpowder Attachment to the Papacy • Ferdinand & Isabella vow to be the right (military) arm of the Pope • Charles V battles the Schism of Christianity • The Dutch Revolt 1566-1648 - fought to keep the Spanish out • The Spanish Armada meant to stop English Interference in the Dutch Revolt and English privateers on the Spanish Main • The Thirty Years War 1618-1648 • Spain divorced from the Holy Roman Empire dies and they select a french candiate • All this bankrupts the Spanish crown - All money spent of these wars (wars never make you money) 4 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 Apogee of power • Wealth of a Continent - squandered • An enormous navy and world-wide empire • Military prowess, Spanish tercio, manpower depleted in endless wars. • Then decline - France and powers of europe decide their fate for them England 1700 Elizabeth I • • James I , 1567-1625 - as with all kings, he wanted to be a strong king • Wrote “The True Law of Free Monarchy” where he established divine right - to peasants King - Blue blood royalty - he could have sex with any girl even if married. • • Dismissed Parliament • Charles I, 1625-1649 - married a Catholic princess, did not aid the Protestants in the 30 Years War • Fought with Parliament over money and dismissed it The English Civil War • 1642 -1645 then 1648 , Charles I tried for treason and beheaded • Parliamentary forces wren led by Oliver Cromwell whose armies contained more and more Puritans Commonwealth of England, then the Protectorate which was a military dictatorship • The Kingship Fails • Charles II 1660-85 • Favored religious tolerance in the Anglo-Dutch Wars, he secretly vowed to convert • James II, 1685-88 The Glorious Revolution of 1688 • Whigs and Tories agreed, he had to go 5 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 James II’s son-in-law and nephew, William III of Orange and his wife Mary, were • invited to invade England • Called Glorious because everyone agreed • Sometimes referred to as “bloodless” but there was a war in Ireland & Scotland THE EARLY EMPIRE • An outgrowth of the German side of Charlemagne’s empire • -Always an elected position, The Electors • -Palatinate, Cologne, Trier, Mainz, Bohemia, Brandenburg & Saxony • The House of Habsburg, 1250-, of Austria • -Ferdinand & Isabella’s grandson is Charles V • -With the fall of Constantinople, Vienna guards SE Europe from the Turks THE HRE ABOUT 1700 • This is an old empire • After Constantinople fell to Sultan Mehmed II, 1453, the Battle of Mohacs, 1526, destroyed the Hungarian knights • Battle lines shift north to the Siege of Vienna, 1529 : cleared to vienna : food chain stopped - people started starving to death • Wars are nearly continuous / of religion • Charles V (mean man) also dealing with the Reformation, 1517, and the Counter- Reformation, 1618 (30 year war) HRE RESURGENT • Leading Antagonist in the 30 Years War, Ferdinand II, but 6 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 PRUSSIAABOUT 1700 EARLY-PRUSSIA • -Founded in the Crusades be the Teutonic knights and German settlement, 1308 • -1466 split into Royal Prussia and Eastern Prussia • -An electoral state • -1618, Union of Brandenburg and Prussia • -The Thirty Years War, 1618-1648 • Frederick William I, the Great Elector - Makes Prussia a militant state so nobody can invade them • A FORCE TO BE RECKONED WITH • - After the devastation of the 30 Years War • - Hohenzollern family, Absolute monarchy • - A powerful military led by the Junkers • They sought to create the most efficient military ever backed by a militarized state - Trained and drilled till the army could almost do anything. • Culmination • 1740-1787 Frederick II The Great - involved in every facet of the state because it helped “the army” • An Enlightened Monarch • One of the greatest commander of all time • 1740-63 Fought 3 wars against the empire to take over Silesia 7 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 • War with Austria came about when the king really loved his daughter and made his daughter the Empress of the monarchy. Louis the 14th was pissed Overview • Prussia sits in the center of the great north-south and east-west migration routes • North german is a highway to get to those area 9/20 Ottoman Empire Founded by Osman ; displaced the Seljuks Used Superior Organization and disciple to defeat feudal European armies Capable use of muskets & cannon Success based on able leaders and clan and familial ties 1453- overwhelmed Constantinople 1529- Siege of Vienna 1571- naval Battle of Lepanto - Galleons & galleasses destroy the Turks 1669- Assault on Crete; point of balance 1683- Siege of Vienna; Holy League; decline begins 1687; Battle of Mohacs 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz; Hungary ceded to Christians 8 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 Russia From the establishment of the old state of Muscovy, perennial wars against “the muslims” Mongols devastated large parts of Europe “hitlers holocaust” — Israel will take every means to protect — building walls, creating barriers. They created a state to fight the mongols forever until that threat was not a threat Russia sets goal to free Slavic peoples As they get stronger and bigger they keep pushing up to the Carpathian mountains then they ry to push their influence into south eastern Europe Mughals Muslim - Southern Russia took over Hindu area Founded by Babir ; 1523- 26, claims descendant from Ghengis “a gunpowder empire” Akbar the Great - King of Kings, 1556-1605 - He did not know how to read - Surrounded by good advisors - Patronizes all classes & regions, did not enforce jizya, non-muslim poll tax -expanded empire Shah Jahan “Drugged, boozed and over-sexed” The golden age 1628-1858 Emperor Built Taj Mahal, a tomb , a new capital, Old Delhi Aurangzeb, real decline begins Reigned 1658-1707 Militant , religiously intolerant, Muslim Scholar Internal Revolts , 27 yrs by Marathas Deccan Wars- external expansion 4 Horsemen of the Apocalype, war , death, famine & disease 9 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 Aurangzeb loses control around the periphery Western encroachment begins with BEIC & French Loss of trade revenue eon the Silk Road to sea trade China Emperor wasn't a good but people treated him like a God Culture founded about 1700-1500 BCE Chinese are clean Going through a lot of training before they go to a job Europeans are dirty and stinky getting off the boat thinking they are the best. Europe Reaches China Portuguese reach china 1514 Later Franciscans & Dominican dispute conversions — brings government restrictions English Trade with China England takes over most of the trade by 1680’s Trade was heavily imbalanced China creates CO Hong system to limit contact with the barbarians Most trade goes through Canton English attempts to justify trade are stymied Cow Tow and”tribute bearers” You had to bow and give the king gifts to talk to him Trade is luxury good for silver ,cash & carry British East India Company BEIC BEIC takes over trade Growing appetite for luxury products 10


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