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461 - 4

by: Tricia Mae Fortuna
Tricia Mae Fortuna
GPA 3.49

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About this Document

Chapter 1 Review. Cognitive Psychology and its history and facets.
Cognitive psychology
John W Webster
Class Notes
Cognitive Psychology, wundt, ebbinghaus, epistimology, mind, definition, structuralism, paradigm, shift, Behavioral
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tricia Mae Fortuna on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 461 at Towson University taught by John W Webster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Cognitive psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
Outline Cognitive Ch. 1 1 *First Quiz First person credited for studying memory – Ebbinghaus Rationalism developed to answer questions of cognitive psychology – false Shift of behaviorism to cognitive psychology – paradigm shift The Information processing model such as those by Broadbent and Atkinson & Shiffren are good examples of “flow diagrams” of mental activity – True Movement of information in digitial computers is a good example of – Serial processing Cognitive Psychology & Cognitive Science: Introduction Cognitive Psychology is the psychology concerned with the scientific study of the mind  Study of our mental life – “Thinking”  Key Features of Cognitive Psychology  Mental representations  Epistemology  Metaphors/Models (Computer & Brain) e.g. Waugh & Norman IP memory model  Multifaceted (e.g., Attention, Memory, Development)  Key discipline in Cognitive Neuroscience  Cognitive Psychology  Neuroscience  Computer Science Philosophical Issues  Epistemology (study of “knowledge”)  Basic Issues: How do we come to “know,” what does it mean to “know” something, how do we tell the true from false or real from imaginary?  Two different approaches (simplified)  Rationalism  Empiricism  Mind-Body Problem – Dualism  Consciousness Historical Antecedents th  Psychology developed in Late 19 century Germany from Philosophy and Physiology.  Structuralism: Wundt/Titchener  Structure of the mind (NOT THE BRAIN): mental representations and the nature of consciousness  Reliance on Introspection  Problems  Major contribution was the introduction of systematic experimentation into Psychology.  Functionalism: Wm. James, et al.  Practical – how do mental functions work – why do they work that way  Mental functions were adaptive  Natural selection (Darwin) critical  Lost influence by 1920s – Behaviorism  Behaviorism: Watson (~1920 from Pavlov), Skinner (~1940 from Thorndike)  “Scientific” psychology should  Only study directly observable phenomena.  Exclude internal states/phenomena and biological causes (Radical (S-R) Behaviorism)  Dominated research (non-clinical) in Psychology from 1920s through 1960s. The Cognitive “Revolution”  “Paradigm Shift” (Thomas Kuhn) from S–R occurred fairly quickly (from mid 1950s to mid 1960s).  Earlier work set the stage for this change (e.g., Piaget, Bartlett, Tolman, Broadbent)  1956 – an important year:  Newell & Simon’s “Logic Theorist” (cited in the text)  Chomsky – Psycholinguistics (later demolishes Skinner’s Verbal Behavior)  Miller’s “The Magic Number 7 + 2” published.  Summary: Behaviorism wanes by mid ’60s -- “Paradigm Shift” toward inclusion of mental phenomena  S-R animal models (Skinner) could not adequately explain complex behavior.  Human factors (e.g., problem solving, decision making) show problems with simplistic S-R  “Mind” related issues being raised in other fields (Psycholinguistics, Computer Science/AI). Two important concepts found across cognitive processes Outline Cognitive Ch. 1 2  Serial Processing vs. Parallel Processing ♦ Serial (e.g., IP models) – Information processes sequentially ♦ Parallel (e.g., PDP, connectionism, neural networks) – information processed simultaneously (in parallel) ♦  Bottom-up Processes vs. Top-Down Processes ♦ Bottom-up – “Data Driven” associate background information to face (conceptual to details) ♦ Top-Down – “Conceptually Driven” (details combined then conceptual) Models/Metaphors  Models and metaphors guide research (e.g., the model of the atom).  Structural vs. Process  Two influential process models in Cognitive Psych.  IP (information processing) model (e.g., Primary – Secondary). Metaphor is digital computer  PDP (parallel distributed processing) model. Metaphor: The brain’s network of neural connections.  A.K.A. “Connectionism” Based on “neural networks” and AI  Cognitive activity results from interconnections among independent units. (parallel processing)  E.g., model of LTM retrieval Contemporary approaches to understanding cognition  Experimental (Cognitive) Psychology  Biological Approaches  Cognitive Neuroscience (experimentation/observation of brain activity) Imaging: PET, fMRI  Cognitive Neuropsychology (brain damage/case studies) dissociations, modularity  Computer (Computational) Models – Anderson’s ACT models


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