461 - 4
Popular in Cognitive psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tricia Mae Fortuna on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 461 at Towson University taught by John W Webster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Cognitive psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.
Reviews for 461 - 4
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/23/16
Outline Cognitive Ch. 1 1 *First Quiz First person credited for studying memory – Ebbinghaus Rationalism developed to answer questions of cognitive psychology – false Shift of behaviorism to cognitive psychology – paradigm shift The Information processing model such as those by Broadbent and Atkinson & Shiffren are good examples of “flow diagrams” of mental activity – True Movement of information in digitial computers is a good example of – Serial processing Cognitive Psychology & Cognitive Science: Introduction Cognitive Psychology is the psychology concerned with the scientific study of the mind Study of our mental life – “Thinking” Key Features of Cognitive Psychology Mental representations Epistemology Metaphors/Models (Computer & Brain) e.g. Waugh & Norman IP memory model Multifaceted (e.g., Attention, Memory, Development) Key discipline in Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive Psychology Neuroscience Computer Science Philosophical Issues Epistemology (study of “knowledge”) Basic Issues: How do we come to “know,” what does it mean to “know” something, how do we tell the true from false or real from imaginary? Two different approaches (simplified) Rationalism Empiricism Mind-Body Problem – Dualism Consciousness Historical Antecedents th Psychology developed in Late 19 century Germany from Philosophy and Physiology. Structuralism: Wundt/Titchener Structure of the mind (NOT THE BRAIN): mental representations and the nature of consciousness Reliance on Introspection Problems Major contribution was the introduction of systematic experimentation into Psychology. Functionalism: Wm. James, et al. Practical – how do mental functions work – why do they work that way Mental functions were adaptive Natural selection (Darwin) critical Lost influence by 1920s – Behaviorism Behaviorism: Watson (~1920 from Pavlov), Skinner (~1940 from Thorndike) “Scientific” psychology should Only study directly observable phenomena. Exclude internal states/phenomena and biological causes (Radical (S-R) Behaviorism) Dominated research (non-clinical) in Psychology from 1920s through 1960s. The Cognitive “Revolution” “Paradigm Shift” (Thomas Kuhn) from S–R occurred fairly quickly (from mid 1950s to mid 1960s). Earlier work set the stage for this change (e.g., Piaget, Bartlett, Tolman, Broadbent) 1956 – an important year: Newell & Simon’s “Logic Theorist” (cited in the text) Chomsky – Psycholinguistics (later demolishes Skinner’s Verbal Behavior) Miller’s “The Magic Number 7 + 2” published. Summary: Behaviorism wanes by mid ’60s -- “Paradigm Shift” toward inclusion of mental phenomena S-R animal models (Skinner) could not adequately explain complex behavior. Human factors (e.g., problem solving, decision making) show problems with simplistic S-R “Mind” related issues being raised in other fields (Psycholinguistics, Computer Science/AI). Two important concepts found across cognitive processes Outline Cognitive Ch. 1 2 Serial Processing vs. Parallel Processing ♦ Serial (e.g., IP models) – Information processes sequentially ♦ Parallel (e.g., PDP, connectionism, neural networks) – information processed simultaneously (in parallel) ♦ Bottom-up Processes vs. Top-Down Processes ♦ Bottom-up – “Data Driven” associate background information to face (conceptual to details) ♦ Top-Down – “Conceptually Driven” (details combined then conceptual) Models/Metaphors Models and metaphors guide research (e.g., the model of the atom). Structural vs. Process Two influential process models in Cognitive Psych. IP (information processing) model (e.g., Primary – Secondary). Metaphor is digital computer PDP (parallel distributed processing) model. Metaphor: The brain’s network of neural connections. A.K.A. “Connectionism” Based on “neural networks” and AI Cognitive activity results from interconnections among independent units. (parallel processing) E.g., model of LTM retrieval Contemporary approaches to understanding cognition Experimental (Cognitive) Psychology Biological Approaches Cognitive Neuroscience (experimentation/observation of brain activity) Imaging: PET, fMRI Cognitive Neuropsychology (brain damage/case studies) dissociations, modularity Computer (Computational) Models – Anderson’s ACT models
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'