Week 2, Lectures 2 and 3
Week 2, Lectures 2 and 3 01:830:310
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by gtan51097 on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:830:310 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Estelle Mayhew in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Neuropsychology in Psychology at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
9/19/2016 Lecture 2: Development of NS Neurons Exclusive to NS Info transmission Info comes in through dendrites Axon sends info Transmission w/in cells is electrical; between cells is chemical Neurons classified by how many things sticking out of cell body Glial Cells Diff methods to count glial cells At least as many as neurons Surround neurons and weren’t thought to have a role in info transmission Microglia: different origin from macro but related; cleanup and immune function Macroglia o Oligodendrocytes: make myelin in CNS o Schwann cells: make myelin in PNS o Astrocytes: nutrient balance; some form blood-brain barrier; maintenance, stability o Ependymal cells: produce cerebrospinal fluid Myelin Sheath Bilipid layer that wraps around axon Insulates axon; action potential Info travels faster through myelin coated axon Axons w/out myelin AP travels slower Neuron bodies and axons White matter b/c of myelin; mostly axons Gray matter; mostly cells bodies Brain cell bodies on outside, axons inside Multiple Sclerosis Demyelinating disorder Only in CNS Mechanism: myelin breaks down Proximal cause: Immune system attacking oligodendrocytes Distal cause: possibly genetic susceptibility (some’s immune system can attack body) and environmental trigger Symptoms o Sensory: numbness, vision o Motor: muscle weakness; difficulty moving or balancing, speaking, swallowing o Cognitive: concentration and attention, memory problems o Emotional: depends on area affected; could be b/c myelin being destroyed or natural reaction Incidence o 1 in 2000 in US o Higher latitude sun exposure and vitamin D o High among Palestinians, Sardinians, Parses Onset, diagnosis, progression o Commonly 20-40 years old o More in women; 1.5-2x as men o Various forms of progression: attacks, remission Relapsing remitting: stable between attacks Secondary progressive: steadily get worse Primary progressive: no attacks, just keep getting worse Progressive relapsing: gets worse with every attack Treatment o Attacks o Progression o Symptoms Basic processes in development Neurogenesis: formation of neurons; migrate along glial cells in waves to final destination Synaptogenesis: formation of synapses Myelination: formation of myelin after neurons arrive Synaptic pruning: makes more efficient routes for transmission Three Germ Levels Ectoderm: develops into nervous tissue and epidermis (skin) Mesoderm: develops into muscles, bones, genital Endoderm: develops gastrointestinal and respiratory Non-closure Neuropore closing Anencephaly: if doesn’t close no brain Neural tube starts closing in the middle Lack of closure of posterior neuropore: spina bifida 9/21/2016 Lecture 3: Development, Parts, Meninges, CSF Lissencephaly Due to defective neuronal migration st Genetic, viral, hypoxia during 1 trimester Less brain tissue intellectually impaired Microcephaly Small head circumference Pre- and post-natal causes: congenital, utero infections, malnutrition of mother, hypothyroidism of mother, etc. Rare In the news b/c of Zika 7 basic parts of brain 1) Spinal cord: most caudal part of CNS, receives and processes sensory info from periphery, contains neurons that control muscle movement 2) Medulla oblongata: part of stem, digestion, heart rate 3) Pons: “bridge”, info from hemispheres to cerebellum 4) Cerebellum: “little brain,” contains many neurons, balance as well as many higher level functions 5) Midbrain: sensory and motor function; eye movement coordination and reflexes 6) Diencephalon/Thalamus: relay station; processes info that goes to brain then to spinal cord 7) Cerebral hemispheres Phylogenetics: the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms Meninges Series of membranes protecting CNS Dura mater: outer layer Arachnoid: middle layer o Thinner o “spider” membrane o Overlies subarachnoid space o Contains blood vessels and cerebrospinal fluid in space Pia mater: inner layer o Overlies every detail of outer brain Dural folds Dura is thick Folds divide hemis Separates cerebrum from cerebellum Epidural bleeds: between dura mater and skull Subdural bleeds: between dura mater and the brain Subarachnoid bleeds: bleeding into the subarachnoid space; between the arachnoid and pia mater MAJOR DIVISION VENTRICLES SUBDIVISION Lateral Telencephalon Forebrain Third Diencephalon Midbrain Cerebral aqueduct Mesencephalon Fourth Metencephalon Hindbrain Myelencerdalon Forebrain: lateral ventricle inside hemispheres (vents 1 and 2); 3 on thalamus 4 between pons and cerebellum Cerebrospinal Fluid Contained w/in 4 ventricles (buildup results in hydrocephalus) Produced by choroid plexus of ventricles; 450 mL every day CSF function: floats the brain, otherwise brain would crush blood vessels; water buffer against mild bumps to the head; move head suddenly and won’t get concussion; waste removal which is also carried by blood Cerebral Blood Supply Mirrored system 4 supply arteries; 2 pairs Blood to brain comes from internal carotids and vertebral arteries: posterior supply 2 vertebral arteries connect and become basilar artery posterior cerebral artery comes off it Internal carotid: interior supply mid cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery connected by anterior communicating artery Circle of Willis gives protection against blockage Variability: everyone built on same template but not identical
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