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Psychology 100 Unit 1 Class Notes

by: Sarah Gordon

Psychology 100 Unit 1 Class Notes psy-p 101

Marketplace > Indiana University > Psychology (PSYC) > psy-p 101 > Psychology 100 Unit 1 Class Notes
Sarah Gordon
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Intro to Psychology Class Notes
Introductory Psychology I
Irene Vlachos-Weber
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology, Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Biological Psychology, Brain and Behavioral Psych, Pseudoscience, Sigmund Freud, Freud




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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Gordon on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psy-p 101 at Indiana University taught by Irene Vlachos-Weber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology I in Psychology (PSYC) at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
The Science of Psychology    I. Defining Psychology     A. Psyche (Greek) = breath of life.  a. Greek mythology, immortal gods fooled around and made life miserable for  mortals. A gorgeous mortal woman is born. Aphrodite, the goddess of love,  was upset because psyche had all of the attention and send cupid or eros  (greek meaning sexual love) to shoot a swine herder but accidentally shoots  himself. Gods can’t be shown to psyche, so they have an in the dark  relationship.    1. “Soul/ spirit”  2. Been translated (loosely): “mind”        B. Logos = knowledge: study          C. Original definition: study of the mind        D. Today’s definition: scientific study of your mental processes and your behavioral   Process of both humans and animals  a. (Psychology is a science, a natural science)  b. Science has to be able to proceed to be quantified and be able to observe it  using our senses.   c. Different from religion, in that religion is faith, not science.      II. Contemporary Perspectives: use chart provided     Contemporary Perspectives  Perspective  Subject Matter  Behavior explained by:  Biological  Physiological​ basis of behavior  electrical , chemical events inside the body   Focus on the mind, the brain  ­What goes on inside your body  (brain and NS)  “Nature”  ­Start at the brain cell (like little  ­There is a psychological base to behaviors  ​ Ex: Focus on h​ ow serotonin  batteries) and when it gets excited,  ­neurotransmitters: serotonin or dopamine   is released  neuron fires, it will fire = electrical  (related to pleasure)  process … brain waves  ­neuro transmitters are responsible for  behaviors (serotonin: responsible for  mood and appetite) … depression?    Behavioral  Effects of environment on overt,  Present stimulus get observable response.  observable behavior… cannot see  ­Consequence of that response will make you  ”Nurture” take care of  thought process (so what is the person  Do what again…  something, and comes from  actually doing)  ­Ex: hang out with friend, have good time,   the environment    then you will probably do it again  LEARNING    ­Ex: alcohol, then see snapchat next day, and   We are all a product of    Are embarrassed, probably won’t do it again  nature and nurture    Cognitive  Thoughts and mental processes  Mental processes: perceiving, remembering,  “Thinking”  ­How we reason  Reasoning  Sensation and Perception  ­Therapists look at all three: cognitive,  ­Not predictable on how people are going to  Memory  biological, and behavioral  act, but how our process work   And all thinking processes      Psychoanalytic  Unconscious determinants of behavior  Unconscious processes (thoughts, attitudes,  Sigmund Freud (german and  ­unconscious: things that exist in your  behavior) of which we are unaware  victorian era...repressed  mind that you cannot directly access  ­EXAMPLE: anthony weiner (clinton thing)  time) *draw pic of Freud w  ­effect all of your behavior  ….sexual addiction? Freud would say so  cigar*  ­2 drives: sex (any drive that gives you  ­Freud says three parts:  pleasure) and aggression      ­ID: “it”,   ­ these drives will affect everything  Immediate gratification …2 drives found here  you do   Wants it now, born with it. Devil on shoulder.        ­SUPEREGO: conscience...angel...morals, and   Values, jiminey cricket, comes around age of    5, comes from your parents. Angel on shoulder.      ­EGO: mediator...operates in reality, in your  Consciousness, wants to make both happy    Different erogenous zones, different ages.  Humanistic              III. Ψ(psi) Psychology as a profession     A. Clinical & Counseling: therapists (diagnose and treat psychological disorders)  have to have a masters degree  Might get PhD  Only psychologist who can work as therapists  ~45% of psychologists are these  Clinica​l: more hardcore disorders (psych disorders)  Counseling​: anxiety in depression, life transitions, career changes  MSW (master of social work)   Irene has worked as both… people we think of as therapists    B. Academic Psychologist: involved in research and teaching  Ones in class, or in a college environment, can be in any area   2 types of research  1. Basic​: research contributing to knowledge  a. You have a question of research and only contribute to the knowledge of the  field  2. Applied​: solving a practical problem  a. Someone in community has a question through a problem they have observed  and want you to solve that problem  ​ i. Ex: ​teenage pregnancy or Drugs (DARE: drug alcohol resistance)  1. Sex ed programs…(may or may not get funded)  2. Abstinence​ programs don’t work … how are we sure that they  don’t work? Teenage pregnancy… have higher rates of sexual  behavior and rates of teenage pregnancy… why? Told NO!  ...reverse psychology...and they don’t teach you how to have  safe sex!!! UNPROTECTED SEX or believe ridiculous shit  3. Most effective sex corporations incorporate birth control...IUDs in  colorado = GREAT numbers of little teen pregnancy…  4. Parents have an awkward time talking about sex to kids  5. DARE: “officer friendly”  and tell you not to do drugs… but kids  who have gone through the programs are more likely to do them!   a. Why ineffective?  Some of it is almost comical  (exaggerated), exposes us to things we didn’t know  about…”this is a problem, a lot of kids are doing drugs!!  And are going to try to get you to do drugs so you need to  not be peer pressured and not do drugs!” so it makes it  more attractive and “cool kids”...  b. Only continue to use them to make parents feel better…  and we don’t have anything better  c. So many components dont know what is and isn’t  effective    C. Psychology vs. Psychiatry  Trained differently and perform different things (irene is psychologist...PhD (doctor in  philosophy) and have academic degrees)  1. Psychology­ PhD: academic degree: can’t prescribe drugs  2. Psychiatrist: MD: medical degree: CAN prescribe drugs  Talk therapy: psychology  Talk and then med checks: psychiatrists… no therapy (only biological perspectives)    Psychiatrists believe cannot psych cannot prescribe drugs because they have no medical  degree and don’t know how it could interact with other drugs you take or background or  history of family, and how it interacts with body… and also MONEY psychiatrists are paid  more    Best treatment for depressions and disorders: meds and therapy!    IV. Defining Science (in terms of psych)    A. science: ​     1. 1 way of answering questions about phenomena (things that are happening in the  world)   2. Not only way...some questions you can answer with:  a. Religion  b. Philosophy  c. Don’t have to choose one or the other  We use the scientific method to prove and be measurable to answer these questions    B. 3 characteristics    1. systematic empiricism​: “Systematic”: ordered, structured way (science uses a  particular method; “empirical”: of the ​senses  a. Structured​, ​methodical  b. Relying on observation (have to be able to ​measure) i. Problem with psychoanalytical, but it is not measurable (can’t see id)  2. Public​: info is ​ hared​ can be replicated … reproducible  a. EX: teen pregnancy in bloomington: what if any everyone in bloomington who  took an abstinence class gets pregnant, but what if it’s just the demographic?  NEED TO REPRODUCE THE EXPERIMENT  b. Story: give 8 or 9 year old an iPad, and plays minecraft, call the doctor,  psychosis, iPads are like heroin and activates the same part of the brain…  falsely links the two… ALWAYS consider the source… (example jenny  mccarthy (playboy) but what is her professional background on autism)... if this  was so common, wouldn’t we see more of this…… DOPAMINE anything  pleasurable  3. Can only answer ​solvable problems​: ?s can potentially be answered given ​currently  available techniques  a. Naturally occurring receptors for it (endorphin)  b. Can answer ?s now that we couldn’t answer back with CTs and  scans  c. EX: autism...activity in brain is different in someone who has it and someone  who doesn’t have it, social functioning (difficult time in social relationships)  because they don’t respond to people’s emotions,   i. Part of your brain that lights up to emotions… but autism.. The part of  the brain lights up when see an object not a face...and may need to  teach the person why you need to smile at someone when they smile to  you, they have different intuition  1. Back in Freud’s day, the didn’t know… who did freud blame  ​ autism on? The Mother! * until 1950s­1960s were caused by refrigerator mothers… you  are cold, that the mother wasn’t warm and loving enough..       C. Data base = behavior *we are not good monitors of our own behavior, we  don’t pay attention*  1. Cognitions (thinking and thoughts) is observable and measureable  a. Reactivity­ change behavior because of being watched  2. Includes biological processes      D. Goals of psychology:    1. Description ­​ what?  a. Systematically note observable characteristics  b. What occurred? (see example)  c. Precise: use #s (REPLICATED)  d. Use operational definitions. Terms of measurable observable ​even      2. Explanation ­ ​ why?  a. Understanding the conditions under which it occurs  b. Confirm explanations by ruling out other possible explanations  c. Why it occurred (4 perspectives) ​see examples        3. Prediction ­ ​when?  a. Specify conditions under which a behavior/ event is likely to occur  b. Probabilistic work likely than not to occur      4. Control ­ ​ stop/prevent it  a. Apply a principle or change a condition to prevent unwanted occurrences or bring  about desired outcomes (completely prevent)  b. Ex. (panic control treatment) therapy to prevent panic attacks or to treat depression    Example: Jeanne … panic attacks  *psychoanalytic: repressed sexual urges  *behavioral: going in store (stimulus) ­­­­> panic  *cognitive: think … I’m going to die  *biological response: overactive/amygdala always think the worst will happen      Fight/Flight response  (heart rate increase due to adrenaline)  ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ i. Color of shoes not related to GPA  4. Problems with correlation:  a. Cannot infer causality: just because 2 things are correlated, doesn’t mean one  causes the other  b. Directionality: vvg make aggresive beh, but what about fact that people who  are aggressive might LIKE to and WANT to play VVG  c. 3rd variable:        EXTRA NOTES:  Different stages of life    Oral stage: 0  ­ Want to eat  ­ Explore world through mouth, always puts stuff in mouth  ­ Some people get stuck and smoke a lot, put stuff in mouth    Anal stage:  3   ­ Potty trained  ­ Freud believed you can get stuck in different in stages in life you form those habits,  ­ Retain  ­ When people talk about being anal: uptight  ­ Anal retentive: withholding, be stingy, miserly  ­ Anal expulsive: destructive, curse a lot, get really angry, yell    O = ​obsession​ … thought  Cannot stop thinking about it  Thought, image, or you don’t want to think about, at some point is unpleasant  Ties to injuries or death  C = ​compulsion​ … don’t need both O and C  Feel compelled to do what you need to do, or else something bad will happen  Won’t feel relieved  Some go with obsession  Checks everything  Rituals...has to do everything the same every single time    BIOLOGICAL​ EXPLANATIONS erotonin (neurotransmitters) that means you are  predisposed to a lot of things and need something to set it off  Low serotonin has been a problem for anxiety and depression      **Essay question…** Gail: germophobe (OCD) her daughter is born, and like most parents,  became obsessed with making sure baby was safe: the stress of having a baby  (behavioral//environmental perspective)  When a woman is post partim her hormones are crazy, and lots become depressed. Many  many women have children, but not very many women will develop OCD… there has to be  something biologically that will make you more disposed to produce, something to do with  neurotransmitters, and the stress of the daughter being born kicked it into place  BOTH NATURE and NURTURE    Did the stress of giving up her job and losing her marriage cause higher OCD stresses, now  heather herself represents germs, so now heather and new fiance have to perform the  rituals, note: her house is messy because she is afraid of contamination and so her fear is  alive and she won’t touch anything that she believes will contaminate her..  ­people with anxiety disorders like OCD have ​insight ​(realize what’s happening), so  gail knows she has a problem, and that that concern doesn’t exist but is in her head….know  its do we know that gail knows its irrational? She doesn’t make heather and  her husband do EVERYthing she does like opening the door with a cup.  We believe gail is not p ​ sychotic  ​ (losing reality)    The treatment for OCD has two parts  1st: Exposure: expose to the fear   2nd: Response prevention: (ex. Gail is not going to be allowed to engage in her compulsion)    Behavioral therapy and antidepressants = best therapy     Genetically predisposed of OCD, stressors set it off: had a baby, lost her job, got a  divorce...make them worse    What kind of thoughts does Gail have?  She is going to get contaminated or ill or die...dysfunctional thinking, type of  anxiety...catastrophize (think worst thing is going to happen)    Freud would say that Gail fears sex … so dirty so transfused to her environment in general  (something going on between id and superego) that is causing her to have those OCD  symptoms= 


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