Psychology 100 Unit 1 Class Notes
Psychology 100 Unit 1 Class Notes psy-p 101
Popular in Introductory Psychology I
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Gordon on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psy-p 101 at Indiana University taught by Irene Vlachos-Weber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology I in Psychology (PSYC) at Indiana University.
Reviews for Psychology 100 Unit 1 Class Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/23/16
The Science of Psychology I. Defining Psychology A. Psyche (Greek) = breath of life. a. Greek mythology, immortal gods fooled around and made life miserable for mortals. A gorgeous mortal woman is born. Aphrodite, the goddess of love, was upset because psyche had all of the attention and send cupid or eros (greek meaning sexual love) to shoot a swine herder but accidentally shoots himself. Gods can’t be shown to psyche, so they have an in the dark relationship. 1. “Soul/ spirit” 2. Been translated (loosely): “mind” B. Logos = knowledge: study C. Original definition: study of the mind D. Today’s definition: scientific study of your mental processes and your behavioral Process of both humans and animals a. (Psychology is a science, a natural science) b. Science has to be able to proceed to be quantified and be able to observe it using our senses. c. Different from religion, in that religion is faith, not science. II. Contemporary Perspectives: use chart provided Contemporary Perspectives Perspective Subject Matter Behavior explained by: Biological Physiological basis of behavior electrical , chemical events inside the body Focus on the mind, the brain What goes on inside your body (brain and NS) “Nature” Start at the brain cell (like little There is a psychological base to behaviors Ex: Focus on h ow serotonin batteries) and when it gets excited, neurotransmitters: serotonin or dopamine is released neuron fires, it will fire = electrical (related to pleasure) process … brain waves neuro transmitters are responsible for behaviors (serotonin: responsible for mood and appetite) … depression? Behavioral Effects of environment on overt, Present stimulus get observable response. observable behavior… cannot see Consequence of that response will make you ”Nurture” take care of thought process (so what is the person Do what again… something, and comes from actually doing) Ex: hang out with friend, have good time, the environment then you will probably do it again LEARNING Ex: alcohol, then see snapchat next day, and We are all a product of Are embarrassed, probably won’t do it again nature and nurture Cognitive Thoughts and mental processes Mental processes: perceiving, remembering, “Thinking” How we reason Reasoning Sensation and Perception Therapists look at all three: cognitive, Not predictable on how people are going to Memory biological, and behavioral act, but how our process work And all thinking processes Psychoanalytic Unconscious determinants of behavior Unconscious processes (thoughts, attitudes, Sigmund Freud (german and unconscious: things that exist in your behavior) of which we are unaware victorian era...repressed mind that you cannot directly access EXAMPLE: anthony weiner (clinton thing) time) *draw pic of Freud w effect all of your behavior ….sexual addiction? Freud would say so cigar* 2 drives: sex (any drive that gives you Freud says three parts: pleasure) and aggression ID: “it”...baby...devilish...impulsive, these drives will affect everything Immediate gratification …2 drives found here you do Wants it now, born with it. Devil on shoulder. SUPEREGO: conscience...angel...morals, and Values, jiminey cricket, comes around age of 5, comes from your parents. Angel on shoulder. EGO: mediator...operates in reality, in your Consciousness, wants to make both happy Different erogenous zones, different ages. Humanistic III. Ψ(psi) Psychology as a profession A. Clinical & Counseling: therapists (diagnose and treat psychological disorders) have to have a masters degree Might get PhD Only psychologist who can work as therapists ~45% of psychologists are these Clinical: more hardcore disorders (psych disorders) Counseling: anxiety in depression, life transitions, career changes MSW (master of social work) Irene has worked as both… people we think of as therapists B. Academic Psychologist: involved in research and teaching Ones in class, or in a college environment, can be in any area 2 types of research 1. Basic: research contributing to knowledge a. You have a question of research and only contribute to the knowledge of the field 2. Applied: solving a practical problem a. Someone in community has a question through a problem they have observed and want you to solve that problem i. Ex: teenage pregnancy or Drugs (DARE: drug alcohol resistance) 1. Sex ed programs…(may or may not get funded) 2. Abstinence programs don’t work … how are we sure that they don’t work? Teenage pregnancy… have higher rates of sexual behavior and rates of teenage pregnancy… why? Told NO! ...reverse psychology...and they don’t teach you how to have safe sex!!! UNPROTECTED SEX or believe ridiculous shit 3. Most effective sex corporations incorporate birth control...IUDs in colorado = GREAT numbers of little teen pregnancy… 4. Parents have an awkward time talking about sex to kids 5. DARE: “officer friendly” and tell you not to do drugs… but kids who have gone through the programs are more likely to do them! a. Why ineffective? Some of it is almost comical (exaggerated), exposes us to things we didn’t know about…”this is a problem, a lot of kids are doing drugs!! And are going to try to get you to do drugs so you need to not be peer pressured and not do drugs!” so it makes it more attractive and “cool kids”... b. Only continue to use them to make parents feel better… and we don’t have anything better c. So many components dont know what is and isn’t effective C. Psychology vs. Psychiatry Trained differently and perform different things (irene is psychologist...PhD (doctor in philosophy) and have academic degrees) 1. Psychology PhD: academic degree: can’t prescribe drugs 2. Psychiatrist: MD: medical degree: CAN prescribe drugs Talk therapy: psychology Talk and then med checks: psychiatrists… no therapy (only biological perspectives) Psychiatrists believe cannot psych cannot prescribe drugs because they have no medical degree and don’t know how it could interact with other drugs you take or background or history of family, and how it interacts with body… and also MONEY psychiatrists are paid more Best treatment for depressions and disorders: meds and therapy! IV. Defining Science (in terms of psych) A. science: 1. 1 way of answering questions about phenomena (things that are happening in the world) 2. Not only way...some questions you can answer with: a. Religion b. Philosophy c. Don’t have to choose one or the other We use the scientific method to prove and be measurable to answer these questions B. 3 characteristics 1. systematic empiricism: “Systematic”: ordered, structured way (science uses a particular method; “empirical”: of the senses a. Structured, methodical b. Relying on observation (have to be able to measure) i. Problem with psychoanalytical, but it is not measurable (can’t see id) 2. Public: info is hared can be replicated … reproducible a. EX: teen pregnancy in bloomington: what if any everyone in bloomington who took an abstinence class gets pregnant, but what if it’s just the demographic? NEED TO REPRODUCE THE EXPERIMENT b. Story: give 8 or 9 year old an iPad, and plays minecraft, call the doctor, psychosis, iPads are like heroin and activates the same part of the brain… falsely links the two… ALWAYS consider the source… (example jenny mccarthy (playboy) but what is her professional background on autism)... if this was so common, wouldn’t we see more of this…… DOPAMINE anything pleasurable 3. Can only answer solvable problems: ?s can potentially be answered given currently available techniques a. Naturally occurring receptors for it (endorphin) b. Can answer ?s now that we couldn’t answer back then..like with CTs and scans c. EX: autism...activity in brain is different in someone who has it and someone who doesn’t have it, social functioning (difficult time in social relationships) because they don’t respond to people’s emotions, i. Part of your brain that lights up to emotions… but autism.. The part of the brain lights up when see an object not a face...and may need to teach the person why you need to smile at someone when they smile to you, they have different intuition 1. Back in Freud’s day, the didn’t know… who did freud blame autism on? The Mother! * until 1950s1960s were caused by refrigerator mothers… you are cold, that the mother wasn’t warm and loving enough.. C. Data base = behavior *we are not good monitors of our own behavior, we don’t pay attention* 1. Cognitions (thinking and thoughts) is observable and measureable a. Reactivity change behavior because of being watched 2. Includes biological processes D. Goals of psychology: 1. Description what? a. Systematically note observable characteristics b. What occurred? (see example) c. Precise: use #s (REPLICATED) d. Use operational definitions. Terms of measurable observable even 2. Explanation why? a. Understanding the conditions under which it occurs b. Confirm explanations by ruling out other possible explanations c. Why it occurred (4 perspectives) see examples 3. Prediction when? a. Specify conditions under which a behavior/ event is likely to occur b. Probabilistic work likely than not to occur 4. Control stop/prevent it a. Apply a principle or change a condition to prevent unwanted occurrences or bring about desired outcomes (completely prevent) b. Ex. (panic control treatment) therapy to prevent panic attacks or to treat depression Example: Jeanne … panic attacks *psychoanalytic: repressed sexual urges *behavioral: going in store (stimulus) > panic *cognitive: think … I’m going to die *biological response: overactive/amygdala always think the worst will happen Fight/Flight response (heart rate increase due to adrenaline) i. Color of shoes not related to GPA 4. Problems with correlation: a. Cannot infer causality: just because 2 things are correlated, doesn’t mean one causes the other b. Directionality: vvg make aggresive beh, but what about fact that people who are aggressive might LIKE to and WANT to play VVG c. 3rd variable: EXTRA NOTES: Different stages of life Oral stage: 0 Want to eat Explore world through mouth, always puts stuff in mouth Some people get stuck and smoke a lot, put stuff in mouth Anal stage: 3 Potty trained Freud believed you can get stuck in different in stages in life you form those habits, Retain When people talk about being anal: uptight Anal retentive: withholding, be stingy, miserly Anal expulsive: destructive, curse a lot, get really angry, yell O = obsession … thought Cannot stop thinking about it Thought, image, or you don’t want to think about, at some point is unpleasant Ties to injuries or death C = compulsion … don’t need both O and C Feel compelled to do what you need to do, or else something bad will happen Won’t feel relieved Some go with obsession Checks everything Rituals...has to do everything the same every single time BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS erotonin (neurotransmitters) that means you are predisposed to a lot of things and need something to set it off Low serotonin has been a problem for anxiety and depression **Essay question…** Gail: germophobe (OCD) her daughter is born, and like most parents, became obsessed with making sure baby was safe: the stress of having a baby (behavioral//environmental perspective) When a woman is post partim her hormones are crazy, and lots become depressed. Many many women have children, but not very many women will develop OCD… there has to be something biologically that will make you more disposed to produce, something to do with neurotransmitters, and the stress of the daughter being born kicked it into place BOTH NATURE and NURTURE Did the stress of giving up her job and losing her marriage cause higher OCD stresses, now heather herself represents germs, so now heather and new fiance have to perform the rituals, note: her house is messy because she is afraid of contamination and so her fear is alive and she won’t touch anything that she believes will contaminate her.. people with anxiety disorders like OCD have insight (realize what’s happening), so gail knows she has a problem, and that that concern doesn’t exist but is in her head….know its irrational...how do we know that gail knows its irrational? She doesn’t make heather and her husband do EVERYthing she does like opening the door with a cup. We believe gail is not p sychotic (losing reality) The treatment for OCD has two parts 1st: Exposure: expose to the fear 2nd: Response prevention: (ex. Gail is not going to be allowed to engage in her compulsion) Behavioral therapy and antidepressants = best therapy Genetically predisposed of OCD, stressors set it off: had a baby, lost her job, got a divorce...make them worse What kind of thoughts does Gail have? She is going to get contaminated or ill or die...dysfunctional thinking, type of anxiety...catastrophize (think worst thing is going to happen) Freud would say that Gail fears sex … so dirty so transfused to her environment in general (something going on between id and superego) that is causing her to have those OCD symptoms=
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'