Chemistry Chapter 4 Part 2 Notes
Chemistry Chapter 4 Part 2 Notes CH1213
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by alb1081 on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CH1213 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Xiu Xu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
I. Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions CONTINUED A. Patterns of Chemical Reactivity 1. Combination – two or more combine to form a product 2. Decomposition – a single reactant produces two or more products 3. Combustion – substance burns in the presence of oxygen and normally produces CO2 and H2O 4. Double Displacement (Metathesis or Exchange) – can be precipitation reaction or molecular product 5. Single Displacement – one solid metal exchanges to produce a different solid metal or hydrogen or halogen 6. Neutralization – acid/base to get salt and water 7. Condensation – two molecules combine and water is released B. Molecular Equations 1. Compounds are represented by chemical formulas as though they exist in solution as molecules of formula units a. Reactions in which cations in two ionic compounds exchange anions are called double replacement reactions b. Put (s) or (aq) at the end of each reactant and product C. Ionic Equations 1. Compounds that exist completely as ions in solution are represented as those ions 2. If they match on each side, cancel them out 3. Net ionic equation have those that aren’t crossed out a. If all cancel, then there is no net ionic equation, so there is no reaction at all b. If a solid is formed, then a reaction did happen D. Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 1. An electrolyte is a substance that dissolves in water to yield a solution that conducts electricity (Ionic) 2. An electrolyte undergoes dissociation and breaks apart into its constituent ions 3. Ionization is when a molecular compound forms ions when dissolved 4. Nonelectrolytes don’t produce ions (Molecular) 5. An electrolyte that dissociates completely is a strong electrolyte 6. Weak electrolytes dissociate but still exist in solutions as molecules not ionized 7. Dynamic chemical equilibrium - double arrows show a reversible reaction E. Precipitation Reactions 1. An insoluble product that separates from a solution is called precipitate 2. A precipitate reaction generates a precipitate F. Solubility Guidelines 1. Water is a polar molecule 2. Hydration occurs when water molecules remove the individual ions from an ionic solid surrounding them so the substance dissolves 3. Solubility is defined as the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temperature 4. MEMORIZE SOLUBILITY RULES G. Acid/Base Reactions 1. A strong acid is a strong electrolyte a. Strong Acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4 b. Strong Bases: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2, Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2 2. Strong bases are also strong electrolytes a. NaOH (s) Na(aq) + OH (aq) 3. Weak acids/bases a. Can be reversed 4. Arrhenius acids and bases a. Acids – ionizes in water to produce H^+ ions b. Bases – ionizes in water to produce OH^- ions 5. Bronsted acids/bases a. Bronsted acid is a proton donor b. Bronsted base is a proton acceptor 1. H2O is a Bronsted acid 2. NH3 is a Bronsted base c. Water can be an acid or a base d. Bronsted acids donate protons to water to form hydronium ions e. Monoprotic acid has one proton to donate f. Polyprotic acid has more than one 1. Sulfuric acid is a diprotic acid 6. Neutralization Reactions a. Produces water and salt b. The Net Ionic Equation of many strong acid and strong base reactions is: 1. H^+ (aq) + OH^- (aq) H2) (l) c. Weak acids with strong bases: 1. HA (aq) + OH^- (aq) A^- (aq) + H2O (l) H. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1. An oxidation reduction (redox) reaction is a chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred from one reactant to another a. Oxidation is loss of electrons b. Reduction is gain of electrons 2. A redox reaction is the sum of an oxidation half-reaction and a reduction half-reaction 3. Oxidation numbers/Oxidation State a. The charge of an atom would have if electrons were transferred completely b. Handout I.3 Oxidation number rules I. Single Displacement 1. In single displacement reactions, an atom or an ion in a compound is replaced by an atom of another element J. Oxidation of Metals in Aqueous Solutions 1. An activity series is a list of metals (and Hydrogen) arranged from top to bottom in order of decreasing case of oxidation a. Active metals at top b. Noble metals at bottom c. An element in the series will be oxidized by the ions of any element that appears below it. K. Balancing Simple Redox Equations 1. Redox reactions must have both mass balance and charge balance L. Other Types of Redox Reactions 1. Combination reactions can involve oxidation and reduction 2. Decomposition can also be a redox reaction 3. Disproportionation reactions occur when one element undergoes both oxidation and reduction 4. Combustion is also a redox process
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