World Geography European Realm
World Geography European Realm GR1123
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by alb1081 on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GR1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Shatrughan Singh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geoscience at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
I. South American Realm A. Basic Facts 1. 12 states (aka countries) 2. Mountains in West, Amazon Basin in the East 3. Angels Falls, Venezuela – tallest waterfall 4. 51% of population a. Most of population lives in Brazil 5. Andes Mountains along West Coast 6. Colombia has borders in the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean B. Alexander Van Humboldt 1. German scientist – father of physical geography 2. Landed in Venezuela and discovered plants and animals a. Electric eel b. Altitudal zonation c. Humboldt current d. Tonic water (Malaria cure) 3. “Lewis and Clark” of South America 4. “Unity of Place” a. A place is a connection of: 1. Climate 2. Geology 3. Biology 4. Human cultures b. Environmental determinism – physical environment determines or limits humans c. Geography is the study of several things C. Physical Geography 1. Longest country N to S 2. Wide variety of climates and vegetation a. Mostly rainforests b. Argentina is most diverse with 5 different climate zones 3. 4 Physical Regions a. Andes Mountains 1. World’s longest mountain chain b. Amazon Basin 1. 2 largest river in world 2. Mostly in Brazil c. Brazilian Highlands 1. Eastern side d. Pampas (like prairies) 1. Grasslands in Argentina D. States – Ancient and Modern 1. Amerindians – migrated from North America to South America 2. Altiplanos – high altitude valleys in Andes Mountains a. Incas lived in altiplanos 3. Tordesillas Line (1494) a. Treaty – Portuguese rule Eastern side, Spanish rule Western side 1. Iberian Powers 4. Incan Empire a. Located in Peru b. Feudalism government c. Built huge buildings, roads, and bridges in the mountains d. Practiced surgery and military strategies e. Capital was Cuzco f. Machu Pichu 5. Mestizos – mixed ancestry of Europeans and Amerindians 6. Spanish Invaders a. Spanish enslaved Incan Empire b. Land alienation – process of taking over indigenous infrastructure and enslavement 1. Incas forces to mine silver 2. Spanish ruled their king 3. Haciendas created from land alienation 7. Formation of Vice Royalty a. Viceroy – regal official who runs a country in the name of the monarch b. Vice – Latin for “in place of” c. Roi – French for “king” d. 3 Spanish viceroys: 1. Peru 2. New Grenada 3. Rio de la Plato 8. Fight for Independence a. Spain “let go” some land after American and French Revolutions to focus on their homeland 1. Argentina, Chile, and Peru b. Simon Bolivar 1. “The Great El Liberator” 2. Helped free other states (Venezuela, New Grenada aka Colombia, Ecuador, and Bolivia) 3. Bolivia named after him 9. Other Independence a. Brazil from Portugal b. Uruguay from Brazil and Argentina c. Guyana from U. K. d. Suriname fro Dutch e. French Guinea remains under French Control 10. After Independence a. Newly formed countries were fragmented and distant 1. Distance and Geography b. Many wars c. Started to help each other with trade, resources, and military power E. Population 1. Mostly along coasts F. African Descendants 1. Sugar is huge crop of Brazil 2. Needed workers for cash crops (plantations) 3. Half of all slaves brought to Americas ended up in Brazil G. Economic Geography 1. Largest crop in South America is soybeans a. Mostly produced in Brazil 2. After agriculture, manufacturing is second biggest sector 3. Oil production in Brazil and Venezuela boost economy 4. BRIC – Brazil, Russia, India, and China a. BRICKS is part of developing countries 5. South American Union a. UNASUR – Union of South American nations b. Developing continent together c. Based on European Union Formula (same travel requirements and commerce) 6. South American Urbanization a. 82% live within a city b. People see cities as opportunities 7. Favelas – “shanty towns” (Portuguese) a. Rich to poor disparity b. In Spanish, “Barrios” 8. Mega cities a. Cities that contain more than 10 mil people 1. Rio de Janerio 2. San Paulo 3. Buenos Aires H. Cartographic Maps 1. A map which displays a variable by distorting space, distance, or population I. Latin American City Model 1. CBD in middle with a spine of elite class on sides 2. Zone of Peripheral Squatter Settlements (Barrios and Favelas) J. Problems in South America 1. Disparity of Rich and Poor a. Richest 20% own 70% of the wealth, Poor own only 2% 2. High corruption and crime a. Drugs (cocaine) K. Geography of Cocaine 1. Stages of Production a. Extraction of coca paste b. Refining the paste c. Distribution 2. Miami was central trade route, now its El Paso 3. Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia 4. Remote sensing systems scan for drug trucks and human trafficking L. U. S., China, and South America’s Relationships 1. China is Brazils’s and Chile’s largest trading partner a. China needs raw materials for food and medicine b. Acu superport – 4 lane highways into Atlantic for imports/exports M. Human Geographic Regions 1. Caribbean North a. Population along the coast b. Colombia and Venezuela – farming, population is somewhat inlands c. Colombia 1. La Violencia (Catholics vs Protestants) 2. Drug cartels 3. Insurgent states a. Rebels gain control to be outside of government 4. Failed states a. Government has no control to protect territory of insurgent states d. Venezuela 1. Oil discovery 2. Hugo Chavez – went against U. S. because of communism 3. Neutral in drug wars e. French Guiana 1. Economy is controlled by Space industry 2. Satellite launching 3. ESA – European Space A 2. The Andean West a. Amerindian population b. Peru 1. Incan Empire c. Ecuador 1. Located right at Equator 2. Impacted by Humboldt Current a. “Sweet Spot” – trade winds converge at Equator and bring rain b. ITCZ – Inter Tropic Convergence Zone c. La Nina/ El Nino – cold/warm water i. Fish like cold water d. Bolivia 1. Largest and poorest Amerindian population 2. First Amerindian president (Evo Morales) 3. Insurgent state a. Spanish in the East vs. Amerindians in the West 3. The Southern Cone a. Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay b. Trade Partners – Mercado Comun del Sur 1. Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR/L) c. Argentina 1. Pampas – grasslands 2. 1982 war with Britain over Falkland Islands a. British won 3. First woman president d. Chile 1. Located along Ring of Fire 2. 3 sub regions – Atacama Desert, Middle Chile, and Highland South a. Atacama desert because of rain shadow effect and Humboldt current 4. Brazil a. Mainly Portuguese b. Soccer country c. Largest exporter of soybeans d. Economy 1. Exports agriculture, mining, and manufacturing 2. Goal is to outpace U. S. in food production e. Rainforests f. Zika Virus - Pandemic I. European Realm A. Cultural Difference 1. Cars mostly manual transmission 2. Tips and taxes already included 3. Water costs money in restaurants B. Basic Facts 1. A population cluster but smallest continent in area 2. Ukraine is largest country in area 3. Germany is largest population 4. Eastern border is debated and complicated 5. 60% of area of U. S. but double the population 6. Europe is surrounded by water which moderates climate C. Gulf Stream 1. A river of sea water 2. A warm ocean current moving from equator to Northern Europe 3. Raises winter temperatures in Europe 4. Allows access to fishing because the water does not freeze D. Climate 1. Mostly mild climates a. C and D types E. Physical Geographic Regions 1. Central Uplands a. Heart of Europe 2. Alpine Mountains a. Mountains and Mediterranean b. Pyrenees Mountains i. Separates Iberian Peninsula from rest of Europe ii. Iberian Peninsula – Spain and Portugal 3. Western Uplands a. Old geographically (Scandinavia) 4. North European Lowlands a. Birthplace of Industrial Revolution b. Good for farming F. Population Patterns 1. Mainly in England and Germany a. Farming G. Central Uplands 1. WWII Battlefields H. Alpine Mountains 1. Switzerland and Austria 2. Pyrenees and Alps I. Western Uplands 1. Scandinavia – fjords and hills i. Fjords – U-shaped valleys created by glaciers 2. Ireland and Britain 3. Great Britain and United Kingdom are not the same a. Great Britain includes the mainland areas of Scotland and England b. United Kingdom includes Scotland, England, and Northern Ireland J. North European Lowlands 1. Very flat for farming K. Mediterranean 1. Beaches like Florida and California L. Efficiency of Europe 1. Almost at center of world 2. Peninsula of peninsulas M. Antiquity 1. Period before the Middle Ages 2. Greece and then Rome (governments) 3. City-state – a city that has its own government and which it controls the surrounding territory to form an independent state i. Ex. Athens and Sparta, Washington DC and Mexico City 4. Greeks influenced the Romans 5. Romans spread their language – Romance languages i. Lead poisoning from utensils and bowls ii. Roman Empire greater in size than Greek Empire 6. Middle/Dark Ages i. Religion over science (no personal development so “dark” times ii. Black Death iii. Galileo – Sun at center of the solar system 1. Heresy – to go against the church iv. Rise of Feudalism N. Early Modern Europe 1. Renaissance (1450s-1600s) i. A new need to expand knowledge was reborn ii. Accepting science and new ideas 2. Mercantilism – territorial control, making colonies, exploration of land i. Natural resources to sell 3. Agrarian Revolution i. Large- scale agricultural farming to sustain and make profit ii. Started system of trade for goods and services 1. System – key for a region to develop 4. Silk Roads i. Land and sea routes for cotton, silk, and spices ii. Traders being killed by pirates and tribes iii. Columbus sent to find safer route 1. Found Americas 5. Industrial Revolution i. Started in Britain, the eastward to Europe, then North America ii. Britain was start because of access of raw materials iii. James Watt – developed steam engine iv. Furnaces, textiles, steam power, iron making v. Changed population clusters because cities grew 6. Political Revolutions i. 1776 – American Revolution ii. 1789 – French Revolution 1. End of absolutism (monarchies) 2. Liberalism, socialism, nationalism, fascism a. Fascism – Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin 7. World War I i. Arch Duke Ferdinand assassination ii. Austria- Hungary vs. Serbia iii. July 1914 – November 1918 8. World War II i. 1939 – 1945 ii. Allies vs. Axis iii. Germany invaded Poland iv. UN, NATO, European Union formed