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361 - 3

by: Tricia Mae Fortuna
Tricia Mae Fortuna
GPA 3.49

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Diathesis-Stress Model. Gene-Environment Correlation Model. Nature vs. Nurture on Disorders. Neurons, Potentials, Communication, etc.
Abnormal Psychology
Class Notes
Diathesis-stress, model, Gene-environment, correlation, behavior, inherit, Environment, nervous, system, Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, SSRI, neurons, epigenetics, stress, disorders, mental, psychopathology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tricia Mae Fortuna on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 361 at Towson University taught by DR. ERIN GIRIO-HERRERA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
361 9/13/16 Research on Genes  For psychological disorders: genetic factors make some contribution to ALL disorders, but accounts for less than half of the explanation – it’s going to vary in each person and disorder  Schizophrenia: If identical twin has it, less than 50% chance the other will have it o Many genes, each have a small effect  A chaotic childhood can overwhelm the influence of genes The Environment May “turn on” Certain Genes…  How?  Through neuron activity (changes # of receptors at the end of neuron, which affects biochemical functioning of brain)  Brains are plastic - subject to continual change in response to environmental – even our genetic structure! o Our brains are capable to change  How Do Genes Interact with the environment to affect Behavior? – Two Models: o Diathesis-Stress Model  Individuals inherit tendencies to express certain traits or behaviors – WHICH MAY BE ACTIVATED under conditions of stress  Diathesis: predisposition/tendency that makes someone susceptible to developing a disorder (Vulnerability)  Smaller the vulnerability, the greater the stress needed   Research by Caspi et al 2003:  Short vs. Long Alleles o Risk for depression in adulthood doubled if:  2 short alleles and 4 or more stressful life events (as opposed to people who have 2 long alleles and 4 or more stressful life events)  2 short alleles and child maltreatment (as opposed to those who were not maltreated)  Long alleles: 30% became depressed regardless of childhood experiences  What does Caspi’s research inform us of? This research in depression, both environment and genes are involve in diagnosis in depression.  Genes and Environment both work together whether you get the disorder or not o Gene-Environment Correlation Model  Genetics may increase the probability that one will experience stressful life events (genes contribute to how we create our environment)  Depression: Does the individual seek out difficult relationships or circumstances that make that individual more likely to be depressed? 361  Influence of genes on divorce rates  No family members on either side has been divorced, the probability that you will be divorced is 5% verses  78% if you and your spouse both have identical twin, you parents, spouse parents divorced  Genes are influencing the environment  How can early environments override genetic factors?  If you have the genes to be a genius but you are not exposed to enriching environment your potential will be lower  If both parents are geniuses but mom gets the flu in the first trimester, you might not be as smart as you’re expected to be  Children exposed with lead paint their intellectual outcomes will go down Can we “inherit” Behavior?  Research on rat pups (Francis et al., 1999; Weaver et al., 2004) o Took the rat pups from a cold mother and placed them with an adopted mother who provide nurture and they modeled the adopted mother’s behavior.  Human babies born to parents with schizophrenia but who were adopted into functional families with high quality parenting (Tienari et al., 1994) o They have a 10% chance of having schizophrenia but they did not develop it  What did these studies show? o Even though they have the genetic vulnerability, nurturing parents helped the children not develop a disorder Epigenetics  Epigenetics (epi means on or around)  Stress, nutrition, other substances and factors affect the area around the genes and therefore the genes  It can be passed on for generations  Importance of early manipulations in the environment The Nervous System…  Neuron Cell: transmits info (communication in the brain/spinal cord) o Ex: Race car driver  Glia cells: support neurons o Provide nutrients/removes waste for neurons o Forms a tight framework that holds the neurons in place o Produces myelin o Ex: “pit crew” – refueling, changing tires, repairs, mechanical changes Neural Communication: A two-step process  Electrical signaling: action potential  Chemical signaling: neurotransmitters The Structure and Function of Neurons  Two types of branches extend from the cell body: axons and dendrites  Dendrites: receive (DETECT) input from other neurons  Axon: transmits info to other neurons (AWAY) At the tail end of an Axon…  Axon splits into branches  At end of branch is an axon bulb  Bulb contains vesicles that contain neurotransmitters  NT: chemical messengers that carry neural signals across a synapse Neurons: the basics  Neurons go through steps o Resting, Action, and Refractory  Brain tissue soaked in body fluid that contains many different ions (positively and negatively charged particles) o Na+ (sodium) and K+ (potassium) are important ions 3 stages of Neuron’s Electrical Communication  Resting: Imbalance charge (charge inside neuron more negative that outside of neurons) 361  Action: If signal from another neuron makes it more positive, the inside of the neuron may become positively charged enough to reach the threshold of excitement (which is the action potential) o All or none – If All – signal goes all the way to the synapse  Refractory: Brief period of time that the neuron cannot _ Chemical Communication: Jumping the synapse  Terminal Button: end of the axon, releases neurotransmitter  Each type of Neurotransmitter only fits into a specific type of receptor site on receiving neuron (post synaptic neuron)  Fit: it binds to sire and changes the electrical potential in postsynaptic neuron (Ex: lock and key)  *Messages travel in electrical form within neuron and move between neurons through a chemical transmission system Reuptake  Reuptake: process where Neurotransmitter are removed from synapse and brought to presynaptic neuron o Resupplies presynaptic neuron o Takes away neurotransmitters  What medication involves reuptake process? o SSRI – Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor – use to treat anxiety and depression  Blocks the reuptaking – serotonin stays in the synaptic gap – more chance of serotonin going on to receptors – making the person happy Communicating through the synapse The Nervous System  Autonomic System o The Sympathetic System – fight or flight response (i.e.. Anxiety, Phobia, etc.) o The Parasympathetic System – Calms down the body  Both contribute to disorders Interview: Find someone…  Who has the same focus as you want to focus on  Who’s in the graduate program you’re considering and where it is located? Consider:  What country do you want to work in?  What type of professional might you collaborate with one?


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