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Job Analysis and Job Design

by: Monica Notetaker

Job Analysis and Job Design HMG 6228

Marketplace > University of Central Florida > Hospitality > HMG 6228 > Job Analysis and Job Design
Monica Notetaker
University of Central Florida
GPA 3.56

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Highlights from Chapter 2 in Managing Hospitality Human Resources (5th edition)
Critical Issues in Hospitality Human Resources
Dr. Wei Wei
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Notetaker on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HMG 6228 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. Wei Wei in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Critical Issues in Hospitality Human Resources in Hospitality at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
Module 3 Chapter 2: Job Analysis and Job Design  questions you’ll need to answer: o What job titles do I need to create? o What is the content of each job? o How many jobs are necessary? o How will the jobs fit together so that two people don’t end up doing the same thing? o What qualifications will people need in each job? o What should each person be trained to do in the jobs? o How will you know when people are doing a good job? How should you measure their performance? o How much should You pay people for doing each job?  job analysis is the process of determining what will be done in a job  Many hospitality companies make the mistake of not completing a job analysis for each position, or only doing it half-heartedly  Job analysis reveals the tasks, behaviors, and personal characteristics needed to do a job  it tells a company why specific abilities and skills are required for a job  job analysis determines what will be done on a job, job design determines how the job will be done  Job design involves defining the combination of tasks and responsibilities associated with a job  training programs, job evaluation and compensation planning, and performance appraisals all depend on a complete and comprehensive job analysis  The results of job analysis can be used in human resource planning, recruitment, selection, placement, promotion, career path planning, and safety issues related to jobs  Good hospitality managers know that analyzing and designing jobs is a continual process o How work is done and what is done at work changes constantly Job Analysis Select Jobs for Analysis  Selecting which jobs to analyze is the first step in completing a thorough job analysis  Some companies analyze each job in the organization once per year; others use a rotation system and analyze each job every three Years  Others examine jobs only after major strategic changes within the organization  often the job is analyzed depends primarily on the degree of change associated with the position  New technology in the workplace likely will require job analysis  Job analysis may be required even when a new employee comes on board  Increases and decreases in customer demand, seasonality (discussed later in the chapter), and new competition are examples of external factors that would require a hospitality to operation to reanalyze its jobs Determine What Information to Collect breaking a job down to understand what goes on and how it can be improved is much different from simply breaking it down in order to control employee behavior  The kinds of information that need to be collected are: o Actual work activities o Tools, equipment, and other necessary work aids o Job context o personal characteristics o Behavior requirements o performance standards  the kind of information collected depends on the ultimate use of the data, the time allowed for collection, and the budget If information from the job analysis will be used to write new or updated job descriptions, the information gathered should focus on one of the first three categories: work activities, equipment used, or job context if the information will be used to create job specifications, the focus should be on personal characteristics Determine How to Collect the Information The matrix in Exhibit 3 suggests the most useful methods for certain areas Observation o The simplest and least expensive method of collecting job analysis information o managers simply watch employees at work and make detailed notes of the tasks and behaviors each performs o drawbacks  managers may not be able to devote the needed time to use this approach  difficult to observe “normal” work performance, since employees typically perform better when they know they are being watched  I an observer may harbor certain biases toward specific employees  observers may experience difficult watching employees work without being obtrusive or getting in the way  have problems selecting which employees to observe o Hawthorne effect  Got its name from a study conducted at the Westinghouse Hawthorne Relay Assembly Works Plant in Chicago  Researchers found that productivity improved when the lighting level was increased  The observers concluded that the improvements in productivity were related to the fact that someone was paying close attention to the employees o not very useful when analyzing a manager’s job, simply because much of a manager’s time is spent thinking and solving problems --- duties that are difficult to observe o very important to watch several employees to arrive at an average level of work performance Perform the Job o one of the best ways to understand the intricacies of a job is to actually do the job o by performing the job functions, the person responsible for analyzing the job can better understand the skills, knowledge, physical requirements and personality type required to do the job successfully o gives the analyst credibility with employees o if the job is highly technical or requires a great deal of training, this method could be impractical  since the time required to learn and efficiently perform the job could be too great Interviews o interviewing the employees who do the job o No one can know a job better than the person who does it o Heisenberg Effect  which describes the tendency of people to subconsciously give answers they think the interviewers want to hear Questions and Checklists o often ask employees to rate their work on a predetermined scale o These scales are generally designed to evaluate the difficulty, frequency, and importance of the job and the relationship of one job to another o Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) is a structured questionnaire that quantifies job elements  Completed by employees familiar with the job being examined and then is studied by job analyst  consists of a checklist of 194 job elements divided into six job dimensions:  Information input (the employee gets information on how to do the job)  Mental processes (reasoning, planning, and problem- solving involved In the job)  Work output (physical activities associated with the job)  Interpersonal activities (relationships with other People)  Work situation and job context (physical working conditions and social aspects that affect the job)  Miscellaneous characteristics o management position description questionnaire (MPDQ), which collects information about management work in thirteen different categories o Minnesota job description questionnaire (MJDQ), one of the more popular one-size-fits-all job design systems  MJDQ does not do a very good job  o transferring the requirements from a job at one company to a similar, but not exactly the same, job at another company does not work o Complete, thorough, and effective job analysis and design requires a company to consider itself and its jobs unique, and to analyze each appropriately o The federal government designed the Occupational Information Network system (or O*NET) to help employers with recruitment, training, and other workforce development programs Critical Incidents o involves observing and recording actual events o Over time, a large enough number of such critical incidents can form a fairly clear picture of a job’s actual requirements o The disadvantage of this method is that it takes a considerable amount of time to compile the critical incidents needed to draw a complete picture of the job o The advantage is that this method is an excellent way to develop training materials that show employees how services should be provided Performance Evaluations o an excellent opportunity to collect job analysis information o most performance evaluation methods include open-ended discussions between managers and the employee being evaluated Diaries o Some companies compile job analysis information by asking their employees to keep a diary or daily log of their activities during a specific period o a cost-effective, comprehensive way to gather information o encourage employees to think about the work they do and, theoretically, lead them to do a better job o Drawbacks  It requires employees to dedicate a substantial amount of time to writing events in their journals  Employees may also try to slant their supervisor’s view of them by writing about incidents or actions that did not take place  employees may not read or write well enough to keep a diary  job analysts must spend a substantial amount of time reading each journal and gathering information to completely portray the job Multiple Methods o it may be inefficient to use the same method of collecting information for every job within a property, or from property to property within a chain o using a variety of methods may be the most efficient way to achieve a complete understanding of a single job Determine Who Collects the Information  the purpose of the job analysis, time constraints, and the budget for the process generally will determine who collects job analysis information  A trained professional is usually the best choice if the purpose is to design job specifications that will withstand close investigation by the EEOC  Sometimes it is better to employ a third party, since (1) this person can often be more objective about the positions analyzed, and (2) the objectivity shown by an outsider can be important when presenting unusual or narrow job specifications to the EEOC  A disadvantage of using an outside consultant is that he or she may be unfamiliar with the job requirements  Current supervisors and employees have the most insight into what actually goes on in the job  Using in-house personnel is usually more cost-effective than hiring outside analysts  disadvantage of using either current supervisors or employees is that the opportunity for bias increases  employees sometimes refrain from reporting certain tasks so that they won’t be required to perform then when new job descriptions are written  a former supervisor is no longer responsible for employee promotions, performance appraisals, and disciplinary action, there is less reason to suspect that personal issues might cloud his or her analysis  teams comprise employees who work in the position under analysis (or in lateral positions) and supervisors o this approach often provides the best overall view of a position  Chain operations have one more element to consider: consistency in job descriptions and specifications from unit to unit  A job analysis conducted by current supervisors or employees reflects local operational consideration o less standardized and thus less useful to other operations in a chain  unions are often opposed to job analysis and design programs o re-design is often accompanied by changes in compensation o job analysis breaks the job down into the smallest components for analysis, and this threatens the unions’ ability to negotiate and/or control what each job consists of  union opposition to job analysis is often only a case of fearing the unknown Process the Information  data collection can yield data that is peripheral to the actual job  managers need to process information after it is collected  Information processing is a simple but time-consuming task  The goal is to identify data that will be most useful in defining and describing the work and how to do the job  Content analysis --- or the process of Identifying topics and arranging information found in collected data --- is one of the most effective methods of processing information  Content analysis can help eliminate repetition of tasks or responsibilities Write Job Descriptions and Specifications  job analyses are rarely used in their completed form  information contained in the job analysis is used to create other management tools used regularly in hotels and restaurants  The two managerial tools most commonly derived from a job analysis are job descriptions and job specifications o Job descriptions summarize the duties, responsibilities, working conditions, and activities of a specific job, and the qualifications of the prospective employee o job descriptions are used for:  Recruiting: Job descriptions help hospitality managers develop media ads to recruit employees  Selection: Job descriptions help managers develop selection requirements and interview questions  Orientation: Job descriptions serve as an excellent guide for familiarizing a new employee with the requirements of the job  Training: Comparing an employee’s job skills with the requirements outlined in a job description helps managers determine what kind of training an employee needs and how it should be accomplished  Employee evaluations: performance appraisals are often developed directly from job descriptions, which provide a basis for evaluating employee performance  Promotions and transfers: Job descriptions provide information required for determining if a current employee can perform the functions of a new job  specific formats used in job descriptions can vary substantially from company to company, content usually includes the following key elements: job identification data, a job summary, job duties, job environment, job specifications minimum qualifications, and the date the job description was last revised (to be used as a guide for scheduling rewriting): o Job identification data: This data consists of the job title, work unit, title of immediate supervisor, pay grade, the last time the job description was written or revised, and so on o Job summary: usually a brief general statement that highlights the common functions and responsibilities of the job  “general statement of duties” o job duties: description usually lists tasks and responsibilities associated with the job  this section begins with an action verb and briefly states what this portion of the job accomplishes  action verbs commonly used are administer, assist, collect, conduct, prepare, furnish, and maintain o Job environment: A description of where the employee works and the surrounding environment o Job specifications: describe the qualifications required to perform the job  This element of a job description (sometimes referred to as knowledge, skills, and abilities, or KSA) often is used as a stand- alone document  Employers may outline qualifications related to training or education, skills, and experience, as well as mental, physical, and personal characteristics o Minimum qualifications: the fundamental qualifications a candidate must have to be considered for the position  also referred to as minimum requirements Job Design  This does not mean eliminating necessary elements of a job; it simply means determining which elements are necessary and which are not --- and making the necessary ones more Palatable  One way to accomplish thorough job design is through flowcharting  Breaking a job down into its basic components, managers should encourage employees to consider how each task or responsibility relates to other aspects of their workplace or to other people’s jobs  Flowcharting also allows the job analyst to more accurately determine what aspects of each job could be changed  Sometimes employees are ineffective because the job is designed poorly  Job design and organizational design have perhaps the greatest influence on whether or not a job holder does his or her job well  Poorly designed jobs can lead to unnecessary stress and low job satisfaction, which in turn can lead to low motivation, high employee turnover, and high rates of absenteeism  focuses on how work is to be done  Five techniques --- job simplification, job enlargement, job enrichment, job rotation, and team building --- are widely used in designing jobs o Job simplification involves breaking down jobs into their smallest components and assessing how work is done in each of these components of the whole job  time and motion analysis  useful when the skills required to perform the tasks are not extensive and/or do not require a great deal of managerial involvement o job enlargement is the process of broadening jobs by adding tasks together  horizontal job expansion  help to motivate employees who perceive increased responsibility as a step toward advancing their careers o job enrichment is the addition of responsibilities to an employee’s job that are not extremely similar to the tasks the employee performs  vertical job expansion  The difference is that job enlargement gives the employee additional levels of responsibility o job rotation is often used to alleviate some of the boredom that employees face when performing the same job over and over  requires that employees be cross trained in several different jobs o team building approach views employees as members of work groups rather than as individuals  encourages employees to work well together and to assist one another  disadvantage  requires several training sessions to get a team-building program started  can sometimes lead to counterproductive competition among groups Legal Issues  human resources department is the record keeper for the entire company  Discrimination o To prevent intentional discrimination, a manager must be aware of the issues addressed in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964  Bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQ)  Gerdom vs. Continental Airlines, Inc., 1982, the U.S. 9 Circuit Court of Appeals found that flight attendant weight restrictions were discriminatory due to the fact that they applied only to women  Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) o People with disabilities are considered qualified for a job if they can perform the essential functions of the job with or without reasonable accommodations o It forces a firm to consider each job’s “essential functions  Occupational safety and Health Act (OSHA). o requires that job descriptions explain “elements of the job that endanger health, or are considered unsatisfactory or distasteful by the majority of the population  Labor Laws o the legal issues the agency oversees are wages, discrimination, and working conditions, to name just a few Classifications of Employees  the question then arises as to what type (or classification) of employee best fits the organization’s needs  Various issues must be considered, including the following: o What size is the organization? o What is the corporate culture of the organization? o What type of image does the organization wish to project? o What is the labor market like?  The labor force of an organization can be broken down into two main categories: permanent employees and alternative employees o Permanent employees are the main staff of the organization  Typically work at least 30-40 hours per week  On the regular company payroll  Receive benefits o Alternative employees often work part-time or on a temporary basis  Do not have regularly scheduled shifts  employed at the hospitality company only for a short period of time  grouped into three classifications:  Temporary employees  part-time employees  outsourced employees o Temporary employees  referred to as “temps”  not actually employed by the hospitality organization  the agency charges a fee to the hospitality company, the employee, or both, which can be thought of as a “finder’s fee.”  work only for a designated time period, which can last only one day or as long as several months  useful for occasional events such as banquets or during seasonal demands to fill positions for which hiring full-time employees would not be cost-effective o Part Time Employees  Generally work 20 hours or less per week  Do not receive benefits, medical or otherwise  Do not work regular shifts  Valuable for covering time periods of daily/ weekly peaks in business o Outsourced Employees  Not actually employed by the hospitality organization  Work for a separate company that the hospitality company pays for the services the outsourced employee provides  Do not perform their jobs while they are physically at the hospitality business Staffing Guides  Scheduling and control tools that enable management to determine the number of labor hours and employees required to operate smoothly  Help managers control o employee productivity and performance o estimate labor expenses for their labor budgets  multiplying the hours required by the pay rates of each employee  to understand the development and use of the staffing guides, managers must know the meaning of several key terms: o Productivity: the amount of work output by an employee during a specific period of time o Productivity Standards: are the criteria that define the acceptable quantity of work to be completed by employees o Performance Standards: establish the required levels of quality in the work performed o Labor Forecasting: is any method used to anticipate the amount of work required in a specified period of time  Managers should recognize the two types of labor costs in hospitality companies: fixed labor expenses and variable labor expenses o Fixed labor expenses: those costs associated with the minimum number of employees required to operate a hotel or restaurant o Variable labor expenses: costs that vary according to the amount of business  Managers have more control over variable labor expenses  Developing a staffing guide involves the following step o Set productivity standards o Determine the total anticipated sales and guest volume o Determine the number of employees required o Determine the total labor hours o Estimate the labor expense Set Productivity Standards Met through scheduling Have not already been established for each position, the manager can determine these standards by creating and evaluating a historical profile of labor required over a period of time Some operations base estimates on the number of employees required The advantage of basing the standards on labor hours is that such standards more accurately portray exact scheduling needs The final step in determining the correct standard productivity levels for each operation is to compare the estimated needs to actual labor hours worked To calculate how much this overage cost, mangers should multiply the average salary for each employee category by the number of hours over budget in each category The end result is the ratio of employees to guest Determine the Total Anticipated Sales and Guest Volume  Accurate labor use predictions require managers to anticipate business volume for each day of an upcoming period  The best source of information is previous sales for similar periods  A manager can determine the number of guests that the restaurant will serve by dividing the sales volume by the average per-person guest check Determine the number of employees required  Productivity standards are used to determine how many employees are required to serve the estimated number of customers  Business volume is not spread evenly throughout the evening  Manager could reduce labor costs for this shift by staggering schedules  Scheduling all servers to arrive early and leave late would be the worst use of labor dollars  Factors such as variation from hour to hour in demand, employee availability, and labor laws can cause overlaps or gaps in the actual number of employees scheduled compared to the desired number Determine the total labor hours  Multiply the number of hours each server is scheduled by the number of servers scheduled Estimate the labor expense  Estimated by multiplying the average hourly wage paid to each server by the total number of labor hours scheduled Forecasting Sales Volume  Most hospitality organizations develop monthly, ten-day, and three-day forecasts of business volume  Typically, managers develop monthly forecasts first and then revise the forecast for ten-day and three-day periods  Forecasts are used to determine the business volume component for upcoming scheduling periods Trend Line Forecasting  Trend line forecasting involves graphing the sales from similar periods and fitting a line to the average sales projected for past periods  The “fitted line” is created by determining the midpoint between the jagged points  Often misleading o Does not account for any unusual events that may have taken place during a given period Moving average forecasting Sales in hospitality are characterized by a series of peaks and valleys Peaks and valleys result from special events in the area that may detract from or add to business volume o Weather “smoothes out” the data collected from a specific time period Moving average = activity in previous N periods/ N Known as a “moving” average since it involves continually adding new results and dropping the oldest week off the model Seasonality  Must be taken into consideration when forecasting anticipated business volume  Many restaurants are busier just before and during the December holiday season and slower during summer months o Restaurants in summer resort areas have just the opposite experience  Business travel is at its highest level in new York during the spring and fall  The simplest method of anticipating seasonal business variations is to use historical data from similar seasonal periods  Can also be used to prepare weekly business volume estimates Other Methods of Forecasting  Yield or revenue management is a system that attempts to manage supply of rooms in a hotel over time by lowering and raising rates to maximize revenue  Other methods cited in exhibit 12


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