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by: Kulani Purkey


Kulani Purkey

GPA 3.4

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About this Document

These notes cover what was discussed in the fourth week of class.
Intro to Interpersonal Communication
Jenny Farrell
Class Notes
intro, Intro to Communication, Interpersonal, interpersonal communication, communication
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kulani Purkey on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COM 102 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Jenny Farrell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Interpersonal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
Maroon = Study goals Pink = Noteworthy sentences/concluding quotations COM102 with Prof. Jenny Farrell Blue = Prompting questions/thinking statements WEEK FOUR – SEPTEMBER 20, 2016 Yellow = Key terminology/vocabulary Elite Notetaker: Kulani Purkey CHAPTER FOUR: EXPERIENCING AND EXPRESSING EMOTIONS At the end of these notes, you should be able to differentiate between emotion, feelings and moods, the process regarding displaying emotions , explain primary and blended emotion, manage emotional experience and expression, and establish different ways to prevent emotions and experience grief. THE NATURE OF EMOTION Emotion is an intense reaction that controls and interprets how we respond to an event; it is easily seen on one’s physical body be expression or reactions. - Emotion is different than feelings. - Emotion forms what is going on with me and how I interact with people. Emotions.. 1. Are triggered by outside events. a. Emotions do not just happen randomly; they are a result of something that happens to us. 2. Involve physiological arousal. a. This refers to increased heart rate, chills, goose bumps, blushing, sweating, etc. 3. Require awareness/labeling. a. It is important to understand what emotional experience that you are actually having. 4. Are governed by preexisting norms. a. There is usually a social influence about an appropriate way to behave when you have emotions. b. What are societal norms regarding emotions that you experience? 5. Are reflected in verbal and nonverbal displays such as voice, fac ial expression, gesture or posture. Emotions are fundamental to IPC 1. The use of emoticons assistsor gives a facial expression that isn’t normally seen through online communication. a. Emoticons are meant to demonstrate emotion/faces. 2. Emotion-sharing is telling/talking about an emotional experience with someone else (an example of self-disclosure). 3. Emotional contagion is an infectious/spreading of emotions from one person to another. a. Emotions can last a while but not nearly as long as a moment. 4. Feelings are short term emotional reactions to events that stimulate limited arousal. a. These do not trigger an attempt to manage them and they aren’t as easily seen. b. Examples of this include flattery or relief. c. Feelings are not constant; they come and go at brief spurts o f moments. 5. Moods are low-intensity long lasting states that are not reactions to specific events. a. Examples of this include boredom or grouchiness. b. Moods tend to be low-rolling states and can last all day or multiple days. 1. There are both positive and negative impacts of moods and the impact of moods resonates in your tone of voice and reactions. a. Positive moods lead you to positively perceive others and enjoy their company. b. Negative moods lead you to negatively perceive others and dislike their company. 2. Effective strategies to improve moods include relaxation, mental focus, and exercise (these examples vary on an individual basis). Primary emotionsinvolve unique and consistent behavioral displays with high intensity counterparts. 1. Surprise --- amazement 2. Joy --- ecstasy 3. Disgust --- loathing 4. Anger --- rage 5. Fear --- terror 6. Sadness --- grief a. These are referred to as primary emotion but a combination of these would create blended emotions. i. Jealousy is a mix of anger, fear and sadness.. Anger that someone is intruding on a relationship, fear of the other person winning over you and sadness you’ll feel once the realization of losing that relationship hits. ii. Contempt is a mix of anger and disgust. iii. Remorse is a mix of disgust and sadness. (This can possibly be geared toward one’s self). FORCES SHAPING EMOTION Display rules determine appropriate forms of emotion management and/or communication. a. How were you taught or expected to display certain emotions? There is a moment for emotions. Eckman and Friesen have established five principle display rules, these include: 1. Intensification: exaggerating an emotional experience. 2. De-intensification: downplaying an emotional experience. 3. Simulation: acting emotional when you really are not. 4. Inhibition: acting emotionless when you are experiencing emotions. a. For example, acting like someone hasn’t hurt you in a relationship is inhibition. 5. Masking: hiding the emotion from another. We tend to worry and care about display rules so much because we are concerned about what others will think. We choose to display emotions in a certain sense knowing to conjure up or receive a specific reaction from the other person. Gender/sex is another force thatshapes emotion. a. This often stems from how we view our roles in relationships 1. Men tend to be more separated in the emotional sense and classify with anger, hostility, and outwardly expressed emotions –such as having a temper. 2. Women tend to be more connected in the emotional sense and classify with sadness, fear, shame, guilt and more inwardly directed emotions. Personality shapes emotion. 1. Extraversion: causes us to feel more positive emotions and manage stress better Self-disclosure can relieve stress and be a big stress reliever. Those who have a greater circle of social support get sick less often and recover more quickly from being ill or sick. 2. Agreeableness: causes us to be more happy overall 3. Neuroticism: causes us to feel more negative emotions and less overall happiness MANAGING EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE AND EXPRESSION a. Emotions can enrich our lives if we understand proper management and expression. b. Failure to do so can lead to dysfunctional behavior and negatively impact our relationships. 1. Emotional intelligence is the ability to interpret your own and other emotions accurately and use this to communicate effectively. a. ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) is where people struggle to recognize emotion in themselves or others We might take our ability to recognize and understa nd emotions for granted.. 2. Emotion management is an attempt to influence which emotion you have. 3. You can have all different types of emotions and expressions but be able to control all aspects and the strategies for before and after emotions occur. a. Suppression is inhibiting thoughts, arousals and outward displays of emotion. i. You tend to suppress because you don’t want others to know that you have that emotion. ii. Suppression is the most common response to unwanted emotions. b. Venting is allowing emotions to dominate us by explosively expressing them. There are four ways to prevent emotions, these include: 1. Encounter avoidance: Staying away from those who make you angry, sad or any unwanted emotion 2. Encounter structuring: Avoiding topics in conversation or choosing to only discuss certain things 3. Attention focus: Only paying attention to specific things that you know will not trigger unwanted emotions 4. Deactivation: Desensitizing self to emotions BEFORE YOU EXPERIENCE EMOTIONS 1. Reappraisal is actively changing how you think about something so that the emotional impact is changed. a. When you’ve had repeated exposure to something, it is more likely to make you feel a certain way more easily. b. Reappraisal is most effective when we do it before experiencing emotions. c. This helps when you consider how to produce positive consequences that are both short and long term. Instead of focusing on the fact that you are missing out on someone or something , consider what you do have with them/that right now. NOTEWORTHY EMOTIONS 1. Anger a. Suppression and venting are typical responses to anger. i. Although occasional suppressing and venting is necessary, use discretion when considering both. b. Consistent suppression can lead to chronic hostility, or a constant state of negativi ty. c. We often believe that venting will lead to catharsis, but may increase anger. i. Catharsis is emotional relief. d. The most effective strategiesfor reducing anger are encounter avoidance, encounter structuring, reappraisal, and the Jefferson Strategy. i. The Jefferson Strategy insists on counting to ten or a certain number before responding. 2. Passion is a blended emotions combining surprise, joy a nd other positive emotions. a. Is it fleeting and fades over time. You can’t be surprised forever. The element of surprise will fade and turn in to predictability and familiarity. We are always fighting for and chasing after passion because inevitable it has to turn in to something else. 3. Grief is intense sadness that follows a substantial loss. a. The stages of grief have no time frame, might be done out of order, but are as follows: i. Denial: avoiding admittance of the situation. ii. Anger: and dealing with the fact that you won’t be able to fix it. iii. Bargaining: appealing to a higher power, praying or attempting to get it back or not make it go away. iv. Depression: is usually the longest stage of grief. You have to go through the sadness to get over it. v. Acceptance: a way to deal with it and move on 4. Grief requires supportive communication, or conveying support, sympathy and concern to the related party. a. Emotion-sharing is a positive strategy for coping (both online and offline). When considering supportive communication with someone, 1. Make sure they are ready to talk. 2. Ask good questions. 3. Legitimize, don’t minimize the facts and circumstances. a. Encourage and express that “It is okay to feel this way.” 4. Listen actively. 5. Be careful offering advice. 6. Show concern and give praise. It doesn’t matter how they’re actually doing handling grief, commend their strength. EMOTIONAL CHALLENGES We are more likely to lack empathy for others when dealing with emotions online because 1. It is asynchronous: without synchronization. a. Being detached through an online communication medium makes it hard to stay on point with this because you are not in the moment. 2. Of invisibility. When online, your ability to receive verbal and non -verbal feedback is hindered.. 3. Consider the difference between face to face and online communication? What qualities are present or lacking from the two? Ways to avoid empathy deficits online.. 1. Practice perspective-taking and empathic concern by putting yourself in their shoes. 2. Communicate empathy by asking questions to seek the others’ perspective. 3. Expect and be tolerant of aggressive messages and try not to react. 4. Avoid communicating when emotions are strongest.


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