Ancient Greece (Part 2) -- Textbook Notes
Ancient Greece (Part 2) -- Textbook Notes AH 1700
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by ajs1027 Notetaker on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AH 1700 at Georgia State University taught by Flora B. Anthony in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art 1 in Art History at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Chapter 5 pg. 121-141 Notes (Ancient Greece, Part 2) EARLY AND HIGH CLASSICAL PERIODS -beginning of Classical age is marked by the defeat of the Persian invaders of Greece by the allied Hellenic city-states ARCHITECTURE & ARCHITECTURAL SCULPTURE -ﬁrst great monument of Classical art and architecture is the Temple of Zeus at Olympia — site of Olympic Games -Figure 5-30 Temple of Hera II or Apollo (looking northeast), Paestum, Italy, ca. 460 BCE. -good example of Temple of Zeus’s original appearance -Doric temple -possibly a shrine dedicated to Apollo and not Hera II -follows pattern/plan of the Temple of Aphaia (Fig. 5-26) at Aegina -Temple of Zeus has metopes thematically connected with the site — 12 labors of Heracles (“The Greatest Greek Hero”), legendary founder of the Olympic Games -Figure 5-31 Athena, Herakles, & Atlas with the apples of the Hesperides, metope from the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470-456 BCE. Marble. -Herakles holds up sky in place of Atlas, who has gone to fetch the golden apples of the Hesperides for the hero -these ﬁgures display a severity that contrasts the smiling ﬁgures of the Late Archaic Period -art historians call this Early Classical Period, the Severe Style -Figure 5-32 Chariot race of Pelops and Oinomaos, east pediment, Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470-456 BCE. Marble. -the “Seer” is the only ﬁgure showing emotion -most of the narrative reliefs of the 12 metopes of the Zeus temple are a mixture calm, even pensive ﬁgures & others involved in violent action: see Figure 5-33 Seer, from the east pediment of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470-456 BCE. Marble. -rare depiction of old age in Classical sculpture -see also Figure 5-34 Apollo, from the west pediment of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470-456 BCE. Marble. STATUARY -no longer any rigid and unnatural Egyptian-inspired poses of Archaic statues, in the Early Classical Period -Figure 5-35 Kritios Boy, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 480 BCE. Marble. -ﬁrst contrapposto statue in Greek statuary; marks the separation between the Classical and Archaic Greek statuary -Figure 5-36 Warrior, from the sea off Riace, Italy, ca. 460-450 BCE. Bronze. -even more contropposto -Figure 5-38 Charioteer (Charioteer of Delphi), from a group dedicated by Polyzalos of Gela in the sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greece, ca. 470 BCE. Bronze. -part of large bronze group that also included a chariot, a team of horses, and a groom -almost Archaic pose but turn of head and feet in opposite directions as well as a slight twist at the waist are in keeping with Severe Style -made by tyrant Polyzalos of Gela (Sicily) to commemorate his brother Hieron’s victory in the Delphic Pythian Games -Figure 5-39 Zeus (or Poseidon?), from the sea off Cape Artemision, Greece, ca. 460-450 BCE. Bronze. -this statue depicts the god — probably Zeus hurling a thunderbolt -Another example of a bronze statue similar to the Artemision Zeus was the renowned Diskobolos by the Early Classical master Myron -Figure 5-40 MYRON, Diskobolos (Discus Thrower), from the Esquiline hill, Rome, Italy. Roman copy of a bronze statue of ca. 450 BCE. Marble. -original is lost, like mostly all Greek bronze statuary -sculpture posed in almost Archaic manner, with proﬁle limbs and a nearly frontal chest, suggesting tension of a coiled spring — this tensions, however, is not mirrored in the athlete’s face, which remains expressionless -Figure 5-41 POLYKLEITOS, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer). Roman copy from the palaestra, Pompeii, Italy, of a bronze statue of ca. 450-440 BCE. Marble. -one of the most frequently copied Greek statues -once served as a model for Roman athletes as embodiment of Polykleitos’s vision of ideal statue of a nude male athlete/warrior -made as demonstration piece to accompany a treatise on the subject -once called “Canon” -more pronounced contrapposto; asymmetrical balance of body parts — Polykleitan style THE ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS -Figure 5-42 KRESILAS, Pericles. Roman herm copy of the head of a bronze statue of ca. 429 BCE. Marble. -herm — bust on a square pillar -inscription on herm: “Pericles, son of Xanthipos, the Athenian.” -Pericles wears helmet of a strategos (general) -statue conformed to Classical ideal of beauty -Figure 5-43 Aerial view of the Acropolis (looking southeast), Athens, Greece. -centerpiece of the Periclean building program on the Acropolis was the Parthenon (marble building dedicated to Athena Parthenos) -Figure 5-44 Restored view of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece. (1) Parthenon, (2) Propylaia (gateway to Acropolis), (3) pinakotheke (picture gallery), (4) Erechtheion (temple), (5) Temple of Athena Nike. -Figure 5-45 Plan of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, with diagram of the sculptural program (after Andrew Stewart), 446-432 BCE. -Parthenon was built (like the Vitruvian Man) with the idea that beautiful proportions resulted from strict adherence to harmonic numerical ratio -Parthenon’s structure was expressed algebraically as x = 2y+1 -a bit irregular in shape; some deviations from the Greek post-and-lintel structures — stylobate curves, peristyle columns lean inward slightly, etc.; incorporates Ionic order elements even though it’s a Doric building -mixture of Doric & Ionic features characterizes the 5th century BCE buildings of the Acropolis as a whole -Figure 5-46 Phidias, Athena Parthenos, in the cella of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438 BCE. Model of the chryselephantine statue. -Athena statue fully armed with shield, spear, and helmet, & holds Nike (the winged personiﬁcation of Victory) in her extended right hand -“victory” over Persians in 479 BCE -Figure 5-47 Centauromachy, metope from the south side of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 447-438 BCE. -alludes to Greek defeat of the Persians -centaur exulting over the crumpled body of the Greek whom the centaur has defeated -Figure 5-48 Helios & his horses, & Dionysos (Herakles?), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438-432 BCE. Marble. -head and arms of Helios (the Sun) and his chariot horses rising from the pediment ﬂoor; Dionysos or possibly Herakles on the right -Figure 5-49 Three goddesses (Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite?), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438-432 BCE. Marble. -mastered rendition of clothed forms & of human anatomy -Figure 5-50 Three details of the Panathenaic Festival Procession Frieze, from the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 447-438 BCE. Marble. -depicts gods watching the Panatheneic procession (mortal celebration/event) -shows that the Athenians thought themselves as important as the gods by incorporation the gods in this mortal event -Figure 5-51 Mnesikles, Propylaia (looking west), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 437-432 BCE. -grandiose new entrance to the Acropolis -split into eastern and western sections which is why Propylaia translates into “gates” instead of “gate” -Figure 5-52 Erechteion (looking northeast), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421-405 BCE. -temple that was to replace the Archaic Athena temple that the Persians had destroyed -meant to be a multiple shrine for Athena, Erechtheus (an early king of Athens), & Kekrops (another king of Athens) -antithesis of Doric Parthenon; Ionic temple with some of the ﬁnest decorative details of any ancient Greek building -Figure 5-53 Plan of the Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421-405 BCE. -asymmetrical form — unique for a Greek temple -Figure 5-54 Caryatids of the south porch of the Erectheion, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421-405 BCE. Plaster casts of marble statues. -replaced Ionic columns with caryatids, as on the Siphnian Treasury at Delphi -ﬁgures exhibit weight shift -resemble 6th century BCE korai -Figure 5-55 KALLIKRATES, Temple of Athena Nike (after restoration, 2012; looking southwest); Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 427-424 BCE. -Ionic building -amphiprostyle — four columns on both the east & west facades -Figure 5-56 Nike adjusting her sandal, from the south side of the parapet of the Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 410 BCE. Marble. -clothing as a life of its own with abstract designs; almost looks like clothing is wet and stuck to Nike’s body -one of dozens of images of Nike adorning the parapet -Figure 5-57 Grave stele of Hegeso, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 400 BCE. Marble. -in memory of a woman named Hegeso; in the style of the Temple of Athena Nike parapet reliefs -subject is a young woman (Hegeso) in her home, attended by her maid -composition has close parallels in classical vase painting PAINTING -In Classical Period, some of the most renowned artists were painters of large wood panels displayed in public buildings -these works were largely perishable by nature and all are now lost -Greek vases, especially those painted with the white-ground painting technique give some idea of the nature of Classical panel paintings -Figure 5-58 ACHILLES PAINTER, Warrior taking leave of his wife (Athenian white-ground lekythos), from Eretria, Greece, ca. 440 BCE. -lekythos — ﬂask for perfumed oil -usage of white-ground painting technique (use of white clay and then application of ﬁgures with black glaze) -depicts man leaving his wife for war -Polygnotos of Thasos was the leading painter of the ﬁrst of the 5th century. -ﬁrst to abandon use of a single ground line -Figure 5-59 NIOBID PAINTER, Artemis & Apollo slaying children of Niobe (Athenian red-ﬁgure calyx krater) from Orvieto, Italy, ca. 450 BCE. -red-ﬁgure krater -Niobids — children of Niobe -ﬁgures on different levels (inspired by Polynotos) -one child’s face is shown in 3/4 view -Figure 5-60 PHIALE PAINTER, Hermes bringing the infant Dionysos to Papposilenos (Athenian white-ground calyx krater), from Vulci, Italy, ca. 440-435 BCE. -this vase + Niobid krater (Figure 5-59) together provide a shadowy idea of the character of Polygnotos’s lost paintings -Figure 5-61 Youth diving, cover slab of the Tomb of the Diver, from the Tempe del Prete necropolis, Paestum, Italy, ca. 480-470 BCE. Fresco. -youth diving into water symbolizes the plunge into the next life -trees resembling those of the Niobid krater are included within the decorative frame -tomb is a rare example of Classical mural painting
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