The Guomindang in Power and Communist Survival
The Guomindang in Power and Communist Survival Hist 350
Popular in History of Modern China
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 350 at University of Baltimore taught by Dr. Boram Yi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see History of Modern China in History at University of Baltimore.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
Modern China Lecture Notes September 21, 2016 Before Class: talked about what she’s looking for in a proposal, there’s a power point online. Everyone signed up for individual meetings with prof to discuss research paper. Went over proper citations, history majors need to use Chicago/ Turabian style, everyone else can use APA or MLA as long as you remain consistent. Librarian came in to talk to use about research: associated handout. Resources complied specifically for this class Has anyone use subject guides that the library has complied? o New formant, new style, clean, edgy. o Information on citing primary sources, archival material, quilts, biographies, web resources. Database introduction, classes tab, all of the required readings are available online through the Lansdale website. o Pretty extensive. o Save yourself effort of having to filter results. All academically acceptable. Substantive sources o Records and subscriptions available through the database. o Physical copies in the library, but many articles are available online. o If one link doesn’t work, click another one. Many options for accessing articles. There’s a new live chat feature. There’s an auto-answer if the Lansdale isn’t open. You can still cross search like before. o Don’t have to use subject guides if you don’t want to. Gave information, said that you can contact her at any time to help if you need it. Every stage of the research process. o Want to make sure you are on track and have a positive outcome with the research. ALC writing center, submit online or go there. If the writing center can’t help you someone in the library can. Lecture notes: Qing government had last minuet effort to save the dynasty o Collapsed in 1911 o Emperor advocated his throne, abolished old government without setting up a new one. No real revolution o Generally, change of the governing system, someone’s you include changing of society. Did not happen in China o Last emperor advocated, china became republic of china. Republican government. The way in which it was run, not the modern way, traditional way. o Two different leaders Sun Yat-Sen Revered in most of china and respected as father of new china. o But also understood that he was away when revolution was happening o Leader of underground alliances o Popularity among intellectual o No military power, no political office o Gave up his position Yuan Shikai Persuaded Qing dynasty to advocate Most power military main, second president of china, o National election was held Nationalist party o 43% of the popular vote. Didn’t make the president happy, because his party didn’t go over well in election Started arresting newly elected officials. Not popular, did it anyway. o New Year’s Day 1916 Proclaimed himself emperor Very unpopular Many providences claimed independence Revoked his declaration. China would not go back to dynastic rule, very clear from all the protests of his policy Died in 1916 Six presidents in 12 yrs. Real power was held by warlords. o China doesn’t have functioning central government in 1910-1920s o divided by factions, each lead by warlord, essentially military dictators o Hold power through fear intimidation and military force. o Used religion to hold power o Warlords would constantly fight against each other for power and territory o When you don’t have central ideology or power people have freedom to explore other ideologies o New days for china, experimenting with new ways to reform the country China was never colonized by one country rather by spheres of influence by many different foreign powers. o Did not have regular autonomy and power. o Western imperial power had interest in power. Last decade of Qing dynasty 1902-1914 o Great Britain, Japan, Russia, US, France, Germany Lots of foreign investment from outside governments. o Within spheres western powers guaranteed their interests, even if warlords were fighting, left major foreign investments alone o Huge population, huge market. Taking advantage of the Chaos. WWI- 1914 o Initially china was neutral o China has its own problem o 1915 japan invaded Germany lease hold area o Europeans were busy protecting themselves in Europe, colonies were not priority o When they didn’t pay attention to Asia, Japan struck. Japan colonized Korea, moved in and became official neighbor of China o Totally legal, accepted in international community 1915, infamous 21 demands o Japan sent it to China to consider and accept. Wanted China to become a Vassal state that serves Japanese interests. All but outright said it. o Japan controlled 1/3 of Chinas land area. o China still has sizable iron and coal mine If you want to be industrialized, you needed energy Japan wanted to control that resource. o Chinese of course upset, very unpopular. o Japan sent second letter, waiting for answer. Said if they don’t reply, they would be at war. Now the president had a situation he had to respond to, eventually said okay. Japan had already showed the world they could actually fight (war with Russia, Japan won, TR brokered treaty) Chinese president accepted all demands but the last one Will not employ Japanese advisors in the Chinese Government People very upset. Chinese government had second thought, war came to china because of Chinas alliance with japan, Took side with allies, if allies win, you get something out of it. War is about spoils. China sent labor forces to Europe, to help resistance, particularly in France, 96k Chinese in France employed as laborers. When Wilson brought America into the War 1917, he had to persuade American Population. Congressional Address: our Aim is not to gain traditional power, war to end all wars, world order, peace. Self-determination, every person has right to choose their own government. Didn’t jive with imperialism/ colonialism People thought this meant that they could overthrow the foreign governments that were occupying their territory. Chinese disappointed when Wilson didn’t follow through with his promises. Imperial powers only care for themselves China contributed, but gained nothing Triggered mass protest. th o Tieniman square, people gathered and protested may 4 1919 o May be more important that fall of Qing dynasty. Got the common man involved in political affairs o Had to voice their concerns in a big way. o Citizens were the root of this political movements. o Wanted china to gain something from their efforts. o Mainly young people, wasn’t popular o Young people were supposed to follow the elders, now they’re saying “this is what we want” o New development in China o Failed because China wasn’t involved in talks o Leaders of movement were not Confucius scholars, new people who studied abroad and accepted new technology and knowledge. o New intellectuals o Turning point in the movement. Chen Duxiu o Founder of New Youth o Encouraged the youth to be independent, progressive, make changes, scientific, six demands total o Contrasting old Chinese way with the new way to do things Not only old but wrong. o Wanted younger generation to become leaders. Total opposite of what had been taught in china for many years. o Very radical. Not everyone was onboard. Lu Xun o Best writer in China, 20 cent. o Prolific writer o Wanted to make china better, wanted to be a medical doctor, and trained in western medicine. o Many Chinese and people in Asia go to Japan to learn. o Japanese medical college for 2 years. Wanted to cure people’s sickness, thought it was the best way to help people rise up o Discovered this was inaccurate, writing was more important, healing the minds. o Writings circulated in Japan and spread to China, wrote a lot of spiritual things. o “We keep refusing to accept other nations, we keep thinking we are better, it’s not the way it works” o Article on Chasity Men propose Chasity, but don’t follow, push it on woman. Rights movement for Women. No matter what women do they’re wrong. Talking about it in and of its wrong. Taboo. And then he put it out in the world for everyone to read. Very intentional Provoke people to think about this issue. Women were not considered very important, but made opinion important. Need two people for this to happen, why are you punishing one? Criticized double standard. A rape victim had to kill herself to get rid of the shame and prove she was innocent. Contradiction in Chinese society Traditional Chinese identity o Certain ideas: cultural, not political. Hierarchal relationships Community values Confucianism Strive to become a more ethical person To be Chinese is to participated in shared culture. o Started to be abolished with Qing dynasty Abolishment of exam o How do you know you’re Chinese? Nationality was new, never needed to identify it before Nation states o Cultural backgrounds, common practices, traditions, but not natural part of our existence. o Nation state to provide that identity not naturally there Universal education, only men, no minority Highly educated Chinese. Common people don’t write that way and don’t talk that way. Separated by educated o Radicals started writing in vernacular. o Visual culture very important, posters to build identity, propaganda in a sense. o Have to serve the nation, your devotion sacrifice is highly regard. New intellectuals still call themselves Chinese, not subject to emperor, can still create new government and still maintain Chinese identity We need to do something very radical, o Young intellectuals kept searching for new alternative solutions o Common enemy. The conservatives, people who clung to traditions. Foreigners. Karl Marx o Attractive to young intellectuals. o Dialectical materialism History moves forward progressively Science can explain things for us. o Revolution should happen so that society can move forward. o Encouraged class warfare o Came from background of German, critical of division between poor/wealthy o Saw the problems with industrial development o Before you had communist revolution, you need industrial revolution. Have to reach the level before you can adopt communism. Lenin reinterpreted Marxism to justify Russian Revolution. o If you had imperialism you could have revolution. In 1920 Chinese were very open to western ideas. o Marxism criticized western development o Scientifically explained o Started as reading group in university o Li Dazhao o Communist Party formed in 1921 Not very big at first People joined because they wanted something different Basic rights Knew the system they had was unjust and didn’t work well for them, but worked well for the people at the very top. Communist ideology explained why this was happening. o Started as an intellectual movement.
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