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Week 2 Notes

by: Rose Notetaker

Week 2 Notes ES 260 - C01

Rose Notetaker
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Plate Tectonics
Environmental Geology
Class Notes
plate, tectonics




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rose Notetaker on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ES 260 - C01 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.

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Date Created: 09/24/16
Seismology­ study of earthquakes and the passage of seismic waves through Earth  Plate Tectonics ­ Lithosphere is broken in lithospheric plates that move relative to one another and are  collectively called plate tectonics ­ Plate boundaries are defined by the areas in which concentrated seismic activity occurs ­ Continental drift was based on the shape of the continents and similarities found on  continents. This was due to sea floor spreading  ­ In mid­oceanic ridges new crust is continuously added to the edges  Subduction Zones­ were one plate sinks beneath another and is destroyed  Wadati­Benioff Zones­ dipping planes of earthquakes  Three Basic Types of Plate Boundaries  1. Divergent  ­ Occur where new lithosphere is produced, plates moving away from each other  ­ Usually occurs at mid­ocean ridges and is the process of seafloor spreading  2. Convergent  ­ Occur where plates collide  ­ The higher­density oceanic plate descends into the mantle beneath continental plate,  producing subduction zones ­ Process of deformation produces major mountains and volcanoes  Submarine Trench­ narrow depression on the ocean floor, often formed as the result of the  convergence of two colliding plates (often located seaward of subduction) 3. Transform ­ Occur where the edges of two plates slide past one another  ­ Most common location are within oceanic rusts  Triple Junctions­ where 3 plates border one another  Seafloor Spreading Validity established from 3 sources: 1. Identification and mapping oceanic ridges 2. Dating of volcanic rocks on ocean floor 3. Understanding and mapping of paleomagnetic history of ocean basins  Paleomagnetism­ study of magnetism of rocks at the time their magnetic signature formed (used to determine magnetic history of Earth) Magnetic Reversals­ related to changes in convective movement of the liquid material in the  outer core and processes occurring in the inner core  Hot Spots­ characterized by volcanic centers resulting from hot rocks produced deep in the  mantle  Pangaea and Present Continents  ­ Movement of lithospheric plates responsible for the present shape and location of the  continents  ­ Reconstruction of what Pangaea looked like cleared up the occurrence of similar fossils  found on each continent and evidence of ancient glaciation  How Plate Tectonics Work ­ Primary source of energy that drives plate tectonics is energy from the molten interior of  Earth 


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