Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes ES 260 - C01
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rose Notetaker on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ES 260 - C01 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
Seismology study of earthquakes and the passage of seismic waves through Earth Plate Tectonics Lithosphere is broken in lithospheric plates that move relative to one another and are collectively called plate tectonics Plate boundaries are defined by the areas in which concentrated seismic activity occurs Continental drift was based on the shape of the continents and similarities found on continents. This was due to sea floor spreading In midoceanic ridges new crust is continuously added to the edges Subduction Zones were one plate sinks beneath another and is destroyed WadatiBenioff Zones dipping planes of earthquakes Three Basic Types of Plate Boundaries 1. Divergent Occur where new lithosphere is produced, plates moving away from each other Usually occurs at midocean ridges and is the process of seafloor spreading 2. Convergent Occur where plates collide The higherdensity oceanic plate descends into the mantle beneath continental plate, producing subduction zones Process of deformation produces major mountains and volcanoes Submarine Trench narrow depression on the ocean floor, often formed as the result of the convergence of two colliding plates (often located seaward of subduction) 3. Transform Occur where the edges of two plates slide past one another Most common location are within oceanic rusts Triple Junctions where 3 plates border one another Seafloor Spreading Validity established from 3 sources: 1. Identification and mapping oceanic ridges 2. Dating of volcanic rocks on ocean floor 3. Understanding and mapping of paleomagnetic history of ocean basins Paleomagnetism study of magnetism of rocks at the time their magnetic signature formed (used to determine magnetic history of Earth) Magnetic Reversals related to changes in convective movement of the liquid material in the outer core and processes occurring in the inner core Hot Spots characterized by volcanic centers resulting from hot rocks produced deep in the mantle Pangaea and Present Continents Movement of lithospheric plates responsible for the present shape and location of the continents Reconstruction of what Pangaea looked like cleared up the occurrence of similar fossils found on each continent and evidence of ancient glaciation How Plate Tectonics Work Primary source of energy that drives plate tectonics is energy from the molten interior of Earth
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