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Bio 105 Week 5 Notes

by: Hunter Herber

Bio 105 Week 5 Notes BIOL 105 - 06

Hunter Herber
Minnesota State University, Mankato

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About this Document

Both lecture and slide presentation notes. Emphasized notes as well
General Biology I
Marilyn Hart
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hunter Herber on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 105 - 06 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Marilyn Hart in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biology at Minnesota State University - Mankato.

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Date Created: 09/24/16
The Cell DNA synthesis; RNA synthesis; assembly of ribosomal subunits in nucleus Nucleus Most prominent structure in eu cell, contains chromosomes Nucelois Dark "blob" Makes proteins Nuclear Pore Allows things in and out 1 Largest and most easily seen organelle within the eukaryotic cell Ribosomes Rough ER Smooth ER Golgi Apparatus Staining only shows a sliver of the process, not the who process Staphylococcus Nuclear Envelope: The two phospholipid bi layers In nucleus  DNA  Nucleolis Euchromatin & Heterochromatin  The DNA in the nucleus exists in two forms that reflect the level of activity of the cell  Heterochromatin appears as small, darkly staining, irregular particles scattered throughout the nucleus or accumulated adjacent to the nuclear envelope  Euchromatin is dispersed and not readily stainable o Is prevalent in cells that are acive in the transcription of many of their genes while heterochromatin is most abundant in… Nuclear Envelope: has pores that control access to/from nucleus. Water soluble, tRNA, mRNA, rRna  Diffusion: net movement of molecules from high concentration from a high to low concentration Nuclear pore Nucleoplasm Ribosomes have to get in, out, and around the cell Amino acid chains determine the "signal" and whether it can get into the nucleus Cystol = Cytoplasm Nuclear Lamina = actin Central Dogma DNA RNA Protein Primary - Secondary - Tertiary - Quaternary DNA  DNA can self repicate  Transcription o DNA can Transfer its message into RNA  Translation o RNA - Proteins  Protein  Deoxyribose  DNA (has -OH)  Double Stranded (most common form) o B form  Many different forms of DNA  Stable RNA  Ribose  (doesn’t have -OH)  U-A G-C  Single Stranded  Instable Intermediate  3 functional types o rRNA  Ribosomal RNA o tRNA  Transfer RNA  From RNA to protein o mRNA  Messenger RNA  Message from DNA to become protein Viruses  Use receptors to allow its DNA into a cell o "tricks" the cells Aquaporins  Allows water through the cell membrane Osmosis  Movement of water Vertices in an amino acid are carbons Endomembrane System 1 Membranes interrelated directly through physical contact 2 Membranes related indirectly through vesicles Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): an extensive system of membranes that divides the interior of eukaryotic cells into compartments and channels Network of interconnected membranes Tubular membranes and flattened sacs (cisternae) Continuous with NE Studded with ribosomes Ribosomes Synthesize protiens Rough Endoplasmic reticulum Synthesize membrane and transport of proteins for secretion from cell Appear pebbly Rough ER has Ribosomes Smooth ER No ribosomes Packaging of protein synthesis Passes through SER on route to Golgi Lipid synthesis (cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone Drug detoxification Endo = within Plasmic = cytoplasm Reticulum = a net "walls within the cell" Like the plasma membrane, the ER is a double layer of lipid with various proteins attached to its surface Structure = Function ER = green Mito = orange Golgi-delivery system of the cell 1 Located in various areas of the cytoplasm 2 Flattened stacks of membranes 3 Named for camillo golgi, 19th century italian physician who identified them. 4 Animal cells contain 10-20 golgi bodies 5 Collectively the golgi bodies are the golgi complex 6 Function a Collection b Packaging and distribution of molecules sythesized in the cell c Proteins and lipids that are manufactured on the RER and SER are transported to the Golgi 2 Within the golgi, the molecules bind polysaccharides forming new compound molecules a Glycoproteins: polysaccharide and protein b Glycolipid: polysaccharide and lipid 2 Around the golgi, numerous small vesicles containing glycoproteins and gly….. Flippase Flips a phospholipid Polar and nonpolar get "flipped" Is a rare occurrence A distinct polarity 1 Cis face: forming face a Receives products by accepting transport vesicles from the ER. Fuses its membrane to the cis membrane to the cis face of the golgi. Empties contents 2 Trans face: Maturing Face a Pinches off vesicles from the golgi and transports molecules to other sites 2 Enzymes in golgi modify products of ER in stages as the move through the Golgi stack 3 Products in transit from one cisternae to the next Secretory Vesicles Seen all over  Round vesicles (30nm dia)  Location of secretory vesicles: from golgi, to PM to Fuse with it.  Vesicles between Golgi and PM Function:  Carry materials from golgi to PM  Bring new membrane to Phospholipid Membrane Lysosomes: discovered by christian de duve (1950) Appearance: semi-spherical vesicles 0.05-.1 um dia Sometimes lger  Contains a concentrated mix of digestive enz  Breakdown enzymes of the cell o protein o Nucleic Acids o Lipids o Carbohydrates  Digest worm-our cellular components making way for newly formed ones while recycling the materials locked up in old ones


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