Geo 101 B WK1 Reading Notes pgs 1-18
Geo 101 B WK1 Reading Notes pgs 1-18 GEO 101B
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Cook on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101B at Baker College taught by Heaton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see World Geography 1 in Geography at Baker College.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
Geo 101B WK 1 Reading Notes Pages 1-18 A World of Maps Geography is more closely identified with maps than any other science. All humans use mind maps Mental pictures of the places we use a lot like homes, work, church, etc…like mental layouts or blueprints. Mental maps can also include world maps. When you see maps in school, online, or on tv and memorize some of them, that’s a mental map. Maps reflect physical boundaries between countries and can also be made to show geographical locations of tribes, religions, languages, politics and cultural boundaries. Examples include maps that show you which part of the world are Muslim/Christian/Jewish/and any other religion. Cartography- the making of maps Cartography has been undergoing technical advancement such as the use of orbiting satellites to map the world, monitor deserts and glaciers, and shrinking land masses. The use of technology in cartography allows geographers to collect, store and display information and develop a geographic information system (GIS) which brings information to the computer quicker then more traditional methods. Another advance in cartography is the advancement of navigation systems in cars and on phones. This allows the use of maps on the go. Satellites can’t show geographers everything, which means ground work must still be done to ensure accuracy. Always remember the world is a sphere and so to get a 3D world on a 2D map entails some distortion. Globes tend to be more accurate. Geography Perspective Geography, if narrowed down to one discipline, is about the space on Earth’s surface called Spatial perspective. Spatial Perspective-defined as the study of the organization of terrestrial spaces on Earth. social spaces (buildings, cities, political boundries) and natural spaces (biomes, climates, terrain differences) are studied and are usually not randomly configured. Examines the particular order in which the above occur. How predictable, how regular, and where about they occur. Studies the natural causes and human causes. Another key study in geography is the relationships between human societies and the natural world. Geography lies between social and natural sciences, so it intergrates both and is the only science that does so. Looks at how climate changes affect human societies Examines how interconnected human societies actions, movement, etc..are with nature and the natural world. Spatial Patterns show geographers patterns of success and failure in the natural and human world. They also show patterns in the location and distribution of salient features. When a map is created, it shows all or a part of Earth’s surface in varying depths of detail (basic vs. detailed). Maps that show larger portions of the Earth are called large scale and maps that show smaller portions are thus called small scale. World Geographical Realms Geographic realms are boundaries geographers look at which regionalize areas The world is full of countries, islands, religions, waterways, and oceans. Looking at 3 main criteria allow the identification of the realms Physical/Human Characteristics-spatial criteria which is the largest into which the world can be divided. Cultural similarities (like how all Asian cultures are similar) along with physical characteristics (like the difference in appearance between a person of Asian descent and Spanish decent) and regional characteristics (jungles, desserts, islands, mountains) are used to determine geographic realms. Functional-geographic realms are also the result of the interaction between human societies and natural environments. They are functional interactions revealed by farms, mines, ports, bridges, villages, etc.. Historical- realms must encompass historically accurate groups. Two Varieties of Realms Monocentric-are realms that are dominated by a single political entity. North America (United States) , Middle America (Mexico),Russia, East Asia (China), and Australia are all examples of monocentric realms because they are heavily influenced by one country in their realm. For example, the North American realm has Canada in it as well but it’s heavily influenced by the U.S. Polycentric-in these realms appearance, functioning, and organization of the realms are dispersed among a number of more or less influential regions. Europe, and South Eastern Asian realms are great examples. They are one realm made up of several countries that all share influence. Regions within Realms Geographers further break down realms into regions for more specialized study. Breaking down the realms into regions is called Regional Concept. North America, for example, is broken into regions such as the Midwest, Eastern, Southwest, etc… Regions can be hard to outline on a map. Follow several criteria Area and Boundries- All regions occupy some portion of Earth and are not made up. All regions are marked by boundries whether it be natural (like a dividing mountain range) or human (sparceness of human populations). Location- have a physical location on a map within a realm. Can be absolute (latitude and longitude coordinates) or relative (names like Southwestern U.S, Siberia) Homogenity-human population similarities. Physical Settings Geologists also look at the physical natural environments to see how it’s affected human populations spatially. Several natural landscapes occur across the landmasses. Examples would be mountains, rivers, coastal plains, jungles, etc… Geologists examine how these landscapes have created borders between societies. Can study continental drift (travel of the tectonic plates) and the tectonic plates (the pieces of earth that chunks of the world sit on) Studying physical environment by region allows identification of which areas are hit with various natural disasters that are regionally specific and how those affect the populations in the area. Physical studies can also mean the study of glacial activity over history and present and things like global warming and climate change.
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