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BIOL 1543, Chapter 2 Class notes

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by: Kenzie Miller

BIOL 1543, Chapter 2 Class notes BIOL 1543

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > Biology > BIOL 1543 > BIOL 1543 Chapter 2 Class notes
Kenzie Miller
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These notes cover chapter 2
Principles of Biology
Dr. Shadwick
Class Notes




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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Miller on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1543 at University of Arkansas taught by Dr. Shadwick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Chapter 2 Highlight​= Key Term Highlight​=Important Concepts Lactose Intolerant ● Lactose - a sugar in milk (ose likely to be a sugar) ● Lactose - an enzyme that breaks down lactose ○ People who are lactose intolerant do not produce lactase into adulthood Life's Molecular Diversity is based on the property of carbon ● Almost all the molecules a cell makes are composed of carbon bonded to ○ Other carbons ○ Atoms of other elements ● Carbon-based molecules are called organic compounds ○ Carbon atomic # 6 ○ 6 protons, 6 electrons Isotopes ● Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons ● Radioactive isotopes emit various types of energy as they decay 12 13 14 ● 6 C 6 C 6C ○ Differing number of neutrons Use of lower level radiation ● The missing area in this thyroid scan indicates the presence of a tumor that does not take up the radioactive iodine Higher levels radiations ● Radiation kills bacteria and fungi. Irradiated peaches spoil less quickly and can be kept for a longer length of time ● Physicians use radiation therapy to kill cancer cells Ionic Bonding ● Ions form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another ○ Example ■ Na, with 1 electron in its 3rd orbital tends to be an electron donor ● Becomes positive after giving up one electron ■ Cl, with seven electrons in its 3rd orbital tends to be an electron acceptor ● Becomes negative after gaining one electron Covalent Bond ● Covalent results when atoms share electrons in sucha way that each atom has an octet of electrons in the outer orbital ○ An atom may share electrons with one or more atoms ■ After sharing - each has 8 electrons ● If the sharing of electrons between 2 atoms is fairly equal, a nonpolar covalent bond results ● As in water, the sharing of electrons between oxygen and each hydrogen Polar Covalent ● The sharing between 2 atoms is unequal, the covalent bonds described as polar ● Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen Hydrogen Bonding ● Polarity with a water molecule causes the Hydrogen atoms in one molecules to be attracted to the oxygen atom s in other water molecules ● The attraction between partially (-) oxygen and partially (+) Properties of water ● High heat capacity ○ Does not change temp easily ● High heat of vaporization ○ Makes cooling by evaporation efficient ● Can dissolve many molecules ○ Hydrophilic molecules attract water ○ Hydrophobic molecules do not attract water ● Water molecules are cohesive and adhesive ○ Water molecules cling together because of hydrogen bonding (cohesion) ○ Waters positive and negative poles allow it to adhere to polar surfaces (adhesion) ○ Water has a high surface tension What is the pH of a Coke? 3 Acids and Bases ● When water ionizes, it releases an equal number of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-) ● Acidic solutions (High H+ concentration) ● Basic solutions (low H+ concentrations) ○ Acid HCL→ H+ + Cl- ○ Base NaOH → Na + OH- ● H----O-----H ← → H+ + OH- pH Scale ● The ​pH scale indicates the acidity or alkalinity​ of a solution ○ Scale range 0-14 ○ A pH below 7 is acidic ■ H+ > OH- ○ A pH above 7 is alkaline ■ OH- > H+ ○ A pH of 7 is neutral ■ H+ = OH- Organic Molecules ● Organic molecules always include ○ Carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) ○ Those with only (H) and (C) are called hydrocarbons ■ Example- gasoline Carbon Bonds ● 4 electrons on outer shell (wants 8) ● Can make up to 4 bonds Functional Groups ● Functional groups are a specific combination of bonded atoms that always react in the same way ○ Different functional groups change the function of a molecule ■ Hydroxyl group (OH-) alcohol ■ Amino Group (NH2) amine ■ Methyl group (CH3) Monomers and Polymers ● Macromolecules contain many molecules joined together ○ monomers​ : simple organic molecules that exist individually ○ Polymers: ​ large organic molecules form by combining monomers ● Reactions to join monomers ● Dehydration reaction:​ (makes a molecule) an -OH and -H are removed as a water molecule ● Hydrolysis Reaction:​ (breaking water/breaking molecule) components of water are added Carbohydrates ● Function for quick fuel and short-term energy storage in organisms ○ Play a structural role in woody plants, bacteria and insects ○ On cell surfaces involved in cell-to-cell recognition 20oz coke has about how many grams of sugar? 70 grams Monosaccharides​ are sugars with 3-7 carbon atoms ○ Fructose ○ Glucose Disaccharides​ contain 2 monosaccharides joined by the dehydration reaction ○ Maltose ○ Sucrose ○ Lactose Polysaccharides ● Are long polymers that contain many glucose subunits ● Starch is ○ Composed of glucose monomers ○ Used by plants for energy storage ● Glycogen ○ Composed of glucose monomers and used by animals for energy storage ● Cellulose ○ A polymer of glucose ○ Forms plant cell walls ● Chitin ○ A polysaccharide of glucose ○ Used by insects and crustaceans to build an exoskeleton What is high-fructose corn syrup, and is it to blame for obesity? ● Most sodas and fruit drinks contain high-fructose corn syrup ● Fructose is sweeter than glucose ● To make HFCS, glucose atoms are rearranged to make the glucose isomer fructose ● Ina factory What is the problem? ● A 20oz soda has about 69 g of sugar (carbohydrates) ● About 36% of us adults considered obese ● Per capita caloric intake increases 23% between 1980 and 2000 Lipids ● Fats and oils used for energy storage ● Phospholipids from membranes ● Steroids include sex hormones ● Have one common characteristic- they do not dissolve in water (hydrophobic) ● fats are lipids that are mostly energy -storage molecules ○ Fats ■ Unusually of animal origin ■ Solid @ room temp ■ Store energy, insulate against heat loss, from protective cushion ○ Oils ■ Usually of plant origin ■ Liquid at room temperature ○ A fat molecule is also known as a triglyceride ○ A ​triglyceride​ consists of ■ One glycerol backbone ■ 3 fatty acids Saturated Vs Unsaturated ● Some fatty acids contain one or more double bonds, forming unsaturated fatty acids ● Fats with the max number of hydrogens are called saturated fatty acids ○ Most animal fats are saturated fats Partially hydrogenated oils = trans fats ● Hydrogenation of oils ○ Increases shelf life ○ Allows for reheating for frying ○ Reduced need for animal fats ○ Many foods have hydrogenated oils Scientific Studies have documented the health risks of trans fats ● The nurses health study ○ Began in 1976 with more than 120,000 female nurses ○ Is an example of an observational study on dietary health ● The result indicated that ○ For reach 5% increase in saturated fat there was a 17% increase in the risk of heart disease ○ Force each 2% increase in trans fat there is a 93% increase in risk ○ Trans fats are indeed a greater health risk than saturated fats Phospholipids ● Fat like molecules ● 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group ● Phosphate group forms a polar head (hydrophilic) while the rest of the molecules is a nonpolar (hydrophobic) tail Steroids ● Have a backbone of 4 carbon rings ○ Example ■ Cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen Plastic and learning of hormone analogs ● washing , heating, microwaving, exposure to uv light, exposure to ethanol of plastic releases chemicals with estrogenic activity ● Many different plastics, even “BPA free” included released hormones -estrogenic chemical ● Some have been tied to rates of breast cancer The exoskeleton of this organism (a bee) is mostly… Carbohydrate (specifically chitin) Amino Acids ● Amino group (-NH2) ● Acidic group (-COOH, Carboxyl) ● R group varies ○ 20 different amino acids vary by the R-group Proteins ● Polymers composed of amino acid monomers Proteins perform many functions ● Structural proteins: give support ● Enzymes: speed up chemical reactions ● Hormone: are chemical messengers ● Transport: Proteins move molecules in blood ● Antibodies: protect cell ● Channels: allow substances to cross membranes ● Spider silk is made of proteins Peptides ● A polypeptide is a single chain of amino acids ● A Peptide Bond joins two acids ○ Uses a dehydration reaction Levels of Protein Organization ● Have up to 4 levels of structural organization ○ Primary structure-​ the linear sequence of the amino acids ○ Secondary Structure- ​ occurs when the protein take on a certain orientation space ○ 2 types include ■ Alpha helix ■ Beta (pleated sheet) ○ Tertiary structur​ the final 3 dimensional shape ■ Maintained by various types of bonding between R groups ■ covalent , ionic, hydrogen bonding disulfide bonding ○ Quaternary Structure​ found in proteins with multiple polypeptide chains ■ Separate polypeptide chains are arranged to give the highest structure ○ The final shape of a protein is very important to its function ○ A protein is denatured when it loses structure and function ■ Occurs when proteins are exposed to extreme heat or pH ■ Milk if you add lemon while cooking will become denatured and clumpy ■ Cooking an egg- the egg white becomes a squishy solid- can’t get the other form back Nucleic Acids ● The 2 types of nucleic acids are ○ DNA ■ Stores genetic info in the cell and in the organism ■ DNA replicates to transmit its information when a cell divides or an organism reproduces ○ RNA ■ DNA structure ■ DNA a polymer of nucleotides ● Phosphate ■ DNA, Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine DNA ● Linear strand ● DNA is a double helix of 2 strands ● 2 strands held together by hydrogen bond ● Rungs of the ladder are formed by complementary pained bases ○ Adenine always pairs with Thymine ○ Cytosine always pairs with Guanine ATP ​(adenosine triphosphate) ● High energy molecule ● Undergoes hydrolysis and energy is revealed ● The energy “currency” of the cell Which of the macromolecules of cells requires nitrogen? ● Carbohydrates ● Lipids ● Proteins ● Nucleic acids ● Carbohydrates and proteins ● Proteins and nucleic acid


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