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BIOL 1543, Chapter 33 Class notes

by: Kenzie Miller

BIOL 1543, Chapter 33 Class notes BIOL 1543

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > Biology > BIOL 1543 > BIOL 1543 Chapter 33 Class notes
Kenzie Miller
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About this Document

These notes cover main points of chapter 33
Principles of Biology
Dr. Shadwick
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Miller on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1543 at University of Arkansas taught by Dr. Shadwick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Chapter 33 Highlight​= Key term Highlight​= major concept Assumption​: Much of behavior is Adaptive ● Behavior persist because they make reproduction more likely ● Hereditary component ○ Behaviors passed down generations by ​genetics​ or ​culture​(learning) or both Natural Selection & Adaptation ● Darwin observed ○ variation​ ​ within species- individuals vary ○ over-reproduction​ - not all offspring could possibly reach adulthood ○ Some variation is ​hereditary ● Darwin assumed ○ Some traits must be a ​ daptive​-​ increase fitne▯ n a certain environment ○ fitness▯ - likelihood of an individual leaving viable offspring ● Darwin theorized ○ Those individuals with ​best adapted​ traits were most likely to ​leave offspring ○ Overtime, the ​percentage of individuals in a population​ with best adapted traits should ​grow ○ The traits of the overall population change, this is ​evolution by natural selection Nature vs. Nurture ● The nature vs nurture question asks to what degree our genes (nature) and environmental influences (nurture) affect our behavior. ○ Behavior​ is any action that can be observed and described ● Even though genetic inheritance serves as a basis for behavior, environmental influences (nurture) also affect behavior ● Innate Behavior: ○ Strong genetic control, always performed in virtually the same way ○ F​ixed ​A​ction ​P​atterns​- specific behaviors elicited by a sign stimulus ■ Laughing gull chicks begging behavior appears to be an FAP ● Red bill is stimulus ● Chick pecks bill and parent regurgitates ○ Learning​ is not innate behavior ○ Imprinting​ simple form of learning although it has a genetic component as well ■ Imprinting was first observed when birds followed the first moving object they saw after hatching ■ Sensitive Period​- the only time during which imprinting may occur ■ Salmon imprint on the exact chemical makeup of birth river ■ Gots raised with sheep will prefer sheep as mates (vice versa) Proximate and Ultimate Causes ● Proximate questions​- what about the particular organism brings about this behavior? “How” does this happen? ○ physical/ chemical structures ○ Genes ○ Hormonal reactions ● Ultimate questions​- Why do we see this behavior persist in organisms? ○ Evolutionary pressures and adaptation ○ Evolutionary history Nurturing behavior in Mice ● Maternal behavior in mice is dependent on the presence of a gene called fosB. ○ fosB is the name of a gene ○ Genes are given names by researchers ○ There can be 2 forms of a gene, called alleles ● When mothers first inspect new borns various sensory info travels to the hypothalamus (in the brain) ○ This incoming info activates the fosB gene ○ This neural ○ Mice with the fosB allele engage in maternal behavior ○ Mice with the mutated fosB allele do not ■ Could the fosB gene survive in nature? Feeding Behavior in Garter Snakes ● Experiments were done to determine if food preference have genetic basis ● A genetic difference between the 2 populations result in a physiological difference in nervous systems Social Interactions ● Social learning requires observations and imitation ○ Song learning in birds ■ White crowned sparrows sing a specific song ■ Birds that heard no songs sand on undeveloped song ■ Birds that heard recorded species song sang dialect as long as tape was played Associative Learning ● Change in behavior that involves an ​association between 2 events ● Bird eats monarch butterfly → tastes bad → no longer eat them → stay away from bright colors Classical Conditioning ● Presentation of 2 different types of stimuli at the same time causes an animal to form an association between them ○ Pavlov’s dog Operant Conditioning ● Strengthens a stimulus- response connection ● Training with rewards Communication Signal by sender that influences behavior of a receiver. ● Animals exhibit a wide diversity of ​social behaviors ○ Some animals are solitary ○ Some ​pair, ​​ ond​, and ​cooperate​ to raise offspring ○ Some form ​societies​, species organize in a ​cooperative​ manner ○ Social behavior requires communication among the animals ● Chemical​ (pheromone) ● Auditory​ (sounds) ● Visual​ (sight) ● Tactile​ (touching) -​Assumption​: most behavior is subject to natural selection -Behavior can have a genetic component. Territoriality and Fitness ● territoriality​ : behavior where an animal actively defends a particular home range ○ More likely during reproductive periods ● Defense has certain costs- energy is required to sing and fight others and injury is possible ○ Cost must have an adaptive value Foraging for Food ● Animals need food ○ It is adaptive for foraging behavior and food choice to be as energetically efficient as possible (optimal foraging model) Reproductive Strategies and Fitness ● Usually primates are polygamous ○ Males monopolize multiple females ○ Females invest more in offspring, and may not always be available for mating ● Adaptive for females to be concerned with good food​ source ○ Females clump around food source ○ Limits the number of receptive females ○ Males are expected to compete with other males for the limited number of receptive females available ● Some primates are monogamous ○ Rare in primates ● Gibbons use this strategy which is displayed by pair bonding ○ Male and female raise the young ● Monogamy is common when males have limited mating opportunities, territoriality exists, and the males is certain the offspring are his. Sexual selection ● Form of natural selection that favors features which increase an animal's chance of mating ● Features are adaptive in that they lead to increased fitness Common results ● Female choice- ​ limited number of eggs ● Male competition​- fertilize as many eggs as possible to increase fitness Human Males ● Women invest more time and energy in a child biologically ○ Nine month pregnancy → lactation ● Men need only contribute sperm ○ Men are more available for reproduction than women ● Humans are dimorphic: men are larger/ stronger, perhaps as a result of past selection by females ○ Males pay a price → average lifespan is 7 years less than females ● Men prefer youthfulness and attractiveness in females, signs their partner can provide children ○ By choosing younger women, older men increase their fitness Females Choose ● A study of female preference of a male mate was conducted across culture in over 20 countries ○ The ability to achieve financial success most preferred by females ○ Financial success = reproductive success ● Facial body symmetry is important ○ Symmetry in other animals is a sign of good health Societies and Fitness ● Societies form when living in a society has a greater reproductive benefit than reproductive cost ● Cost-benefit analysis can help determine support for this hypothesis ○ Group → living benefits Altruism ● self -sacrificing behavior for the good of another member of a society ○ It may compromise the fitness or the altruist while benefitting the recipient ○ More evident in human behavior ● Kin selection​ ​explains altruistic behavior in animals ○ Close relative share similar genes Inclusive fitness:▯ individuals personal reproductive success, as well as that of his or her relatives, and thus to an individual's total genetic contribution to the next generation. ● Looking out for family and for yourself


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