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BIOL 1543, Chapter 34 Class Notes

by: Kenzie Miller

BIOL 1543, Chapter 34 Class Notes BIOL 1543

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > Biology > BIOL 1543 > BIOL 1543 Chapter 34 Class Notes
Kenzie Miller
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About this Document

These notes cover major points in chapter 34
Principles of Biology
Dr. Shadwick
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Miller on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1543 at University of Arkansas taught by Dr. Shadwick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Chapter 34 Highlight​= Key Term Highlight​=Important Concepts Ecology The study of interactions of organisms with each other and the environment ● Populations and communities ● All the white-tailed deer in arkansas Patterns of​ opulation Growth ● Rate of natural increase ○ A population has 1000 individuals (each year 30 are born/ 10 die) ○ 30-10=20 → 20/1000= .02 or 2% added each year Biotic Potential ● The highest possible per capita growth rate increase for a population ○ Factors ■ Reproductive potential of a current population ■ Availability of food ■ Presence or absence of disease ■ Presence or absence of predators 1. There are about 305,000 deer in Oklahoma. About 73,000 died and 69,000 born last year. What is the increase each year? —4000 69,000 — 73,000 = — 4,000 305,000= -1.3% (If it said decrease, it would be a positive answer) What causes deer to die ● Disease ● Loss of habitat ● Predation - mountain lion/ black bear 2 Ways Population Grows ● Exponential Growth​- growing fast (J- shaped curve) ● Logistic Growth- ​ takes into account all the things that go on with the population A new threat to deer ● Chronic Wasting Disease ​(CDW) is a prion disease ○ Prions​ are incorrectly folded proteins that cause other proteins to misfold (really resistant) ○ Symptoms ■ Difficulty in movement ■ Weight loss ■ Lowered head ■ Tremors ■ Repetitive walking patterns ○ ALWAYS FATAL CDW caused by prions ● Prions move to the brain and cause other proteins to misfold ● Brain becomes perforated and sponge-like ● Prions cannot be destroyed by heat or UV light ● Prions released when animals urinate, or die and decompose ● Prions persist for a long time in the environment Survivorship Curves ● Type 1 ○ Most individuals survive until old age ■ humans , dogs, elephants ← due to parenting ● Type 2 ○ Decrease consistently over time ■ Songbirds ● Type 3 ○ Most individuals die early ■ Oysters (food for everything) World Population Growth ● (Graph drawn in notes) Age structure Diagrams ● More developed Countries ○ Slower to level population growth ○ Mostly europe and north america ● Less developed Countries ○ Not yet reached demographic transition ○ Mostly latin america, asia, and africa Demographic Transition ● A shift from zero population growth, in which birth rates and death rates are high but roughly equal, to zero population growth, characterized by low but roughly equal birth/ death rates ● During transition, ​populations grow quickly Factors that slow population Growth ● density -independent factor ○ Abiotic factors ○ Weather, natural disaster ○ Effects are the same for all size populations ● Density-dependent factor ○ Biotic factors (living) ○ Competition, predation, parasitism ○ Effects are different for different size populations Interactions between population ● Interspecific Interactions ○ Relationships between individuals of other species in the community ○ Greatly affect population structure and dynamics ○ Powerful drivers of adaptive evolution Competition ● Occurs when 2 different species have overlapping n ▯ iches ○ Density-dependent ○ Ecological Niche​:​ the role a species plays in the community ■ Habitat requirements and all interaction with other organisms ■ Cheetahs vs lions ○ Competition lowers carrying capacity ■ Because there are fewer resources for on species ● Competitive exclusion principle ○ No 2 species can occupy the same ecological niche at the same time ○ One species will outcompete the other ○ There will be fewer resources for one species ● Resource Partitioning ○ This allows the division of feeding niches ○ It decreases competition between the 2 species and allows occupancy of different niches and therefore survival ■ Example: 2 species of barnacles live on different parts of intertidal zones ● Both have habitat of attaching to rocks ● Both have same food source ● One can live out of water ● Other can grow large ● Similar but not completely the same Predation and Herbivory ● Predation​: ​occurs when one organism, the ​predator​, feeds on another, the prey​. ○ Types of predation ■ Animals such as a lion that kills zebra ■ Animals such as a filter-feeding whale, the strain krill from ocean waters ■ Deer that feed on farmers corn ■ Caterpillars eating leaves Predation is a density dependent factor. True​ ​or False Example: as density of snowshoe hare went down → density of lynx went down Predation and herbivory lead to adaptations ● Prey adapt using protective strategies​ that include ○ Camouflage ○ Mechanical defenses ○ Chemical defenses ● A plant whose body parts have been eaten must expend energy to replace the loss ● Thus numerous defenses against herbivores have evolved in plants ● Plants defenses against herbivores include ○ spines/thorns ○ Chemical toxins, often the substance that we use medicinally or for other purposes ● Herbivores and plants undergo ​coevolution​, a series of reciprocal evolutionary adaptations in 2 species in which change in one species acts as a new selective force on another species. ● Heliconius butterflies and passion flowers ○ Flower makes decoy eggs with spots on its petals ○ Butterflies won’t lay eggs there thinking eggs are already there Symbiosis ● Close interactions between members of different species ● 3 types are traditionally defined as ○ Parasitism ○ Commensalism ○ Mutualism ● Some are competitions Parasitism ● Derives nourishment from another organism​ called the host ● The parasite benefits and the host is harmed ● Parasites exist in all kingdoms ○ Disease-causing bacteria (strep infection) ○ Protist (malaria) ○ Fungi (athlete's foot) ○ Plants (mistletoe) ○ Animals (tapeworm) ● Plant Galls ○ Abnormal outgrowths of a plant tissues ○ Oak apple gall ■ Caused by oak apple gall wasp ■ Will lay eggs on plant ■ Releases chemicals into plants ■ Causes a growth Parasitism is a density dependent factor. True​ or false Commensalism ● One species benefits; the other is neither benefitted nor harmed ● One species provides a home and/or transportation for the other ○ Example ■ Clownfish and sea anemones ■ Cattle egrets and cows ● When cow moves the bugs jump up from the grass so the bird can get them Mutualism ● When​ both organisms benefit ● The degree of benefit may not be equal ○ Insects that feed on pollen grain a meal, while the plants increase their reproductive chances ● Coral and dinoflagellates- in a coral polyp ● Fish who get cleaned by the tinier fish Ecological Succession ● Change in a community's composition that is directional and follows a continuous pattern of extinction and colonization by new species ○ Primary succession (land) ■ Establishment of a plant community in a newly formed area lacking soil formation ● Secondary succession ○ The return of a community to its natural vegetation following a disturbance ■ Pioneer species​: the first species to begin the process of secondary succession ● Volcano erupts and the soil is destroyed. What kind of succession is it?


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