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Hist 102 Industrial Revolution Notes

by: Andrew Griffin

Hist 102 Industrial Revolution Notes HIST 102 004

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > History > HIST 102 004 > Hist 102 Industrial Revolution Notes
Andrew Griffin

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This past weeks notes going over the industrial revolution mostly in England
European Civilization from the Mid-17th Century
Thomas Leekan
Class Notes
industrial, revolution
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrew Griffin on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 102 004 at University of South Carolina taught by Thomas Leekan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see European Civilization from the Mid-17th Century in History at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Thursday, September 22, 2016 History 102 The Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution - the set of economic and social changes through the steam driven machinery, large factories, and a new working class first to Britain, then spreading to the rest of Europe - Louis Blanqui: coins phrase in 1837 to draw comparisons to draw comparisons to the revolution in France • though we date this revolution roughly from 1780-1850, it never really ended - Newcomen’s Engine: (1712) pumped water out of coal mine, heated homes, and blacksmithing - James Watt’s Steam Engine: (1763) main reason this was invented was to improve Newcomen’s engine and also because he believed that the main reason for the revolution was to harness the power of coal to do multiple things - Questions: How was steam first used in industrial purposes? • - pump water • How did James Watt improve upon Newcomen’s design? - used two separate 8 cylinders to improve the efficiency • What uses did the steam engine have? - it was able to change up and down motion into a rotary motion • Why did Watt depend on Bolton to realize him vision? - Steam engine allowed power to be mobile so the manufacturers moved away from river to place with a lot of labor like cities, and this also forced manufactory away from seasonally controlled Domestic Production - Hand spinning: this is done at home with a spinning wheel that would take a long time. Merchants would give raw materials to cottages to be manufactured - James Hargreaves Spinning Jenny (1767) and Arkwright Water Frame (1769)- 1 Thursday, September 22, 2016 • independent male artisan labor in especially textiles are not mechanized, social contrast of the Revolution • Power loom and the development of factories— male artisan labor shifted to women and children (could pay them less) Question: Why was England leading in the Industrial Revolution? Technical knowledge and culture of entrepreneurship and political stability Geography and Natural Resources - Britain had coal and new cities emerged around them - the industrial regionalism is where a pattern forms where people form together to industrialize cities and live and work in them - Britain becomes known as the industrial power of the world Land Closure - land became a commodity that could be sold or rented - the coalition of land into farmable plots whose goods can be exported - created the idea that people could form together and produce goods at a large amount - so the population grew because of better health, food, and living arrangements so they needed more food • didn't grow so fast that it took away from people but instead created a need for more goods Colonial Dominance: The Atlantic World - British saw themselves as a window into the rest of the world - meant that they could dominate the trade across the atlantic - could sell its good without tariffs like in Europe, to the colonies and Africa and made a large profit - people who were plantation owners invested their money into universities 2 Thursday, September 22, 2016 Joseph Wright: Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery - coal didn't spark the industrial revolution but it was a cultural and political change - “the industrial enlightenment” was a movement to bring together peoples ideas to talk about the latest advances in math and sciences and how they can be applied to every day problems • since British didn't have a absolutist monarchy, their enlightenment wasn't constricted by the king Standard of Living Debate: Optimist - Adam Smith: the father of “economic Liberalism” • was against mercantilist controls • believed government should not intervene with economy but only to maintain public order and protect property rights • Laissez Faire: Let people do as the choose !!! • Invisible hand: Adam Smith believed that the market will balance itself though supply and demand with a central planning, mandated boycotts, raids or wars as each producer and consumer responds to the price of the product Outcomes - The Malthusian Population Cycle • for the first time in world history where they avoided this trap that said that the population would grow larger than its food supply • this was done by colonizing and the exploitation there • optimist will say that the British doubled their population and no one is starving - Social Consequences: Optimist • the real wage of the average worker increased 25% • and then they rose another 40% • the wage of industry workers were twice the wages of workers in agriculture 3 Thursday, September 22, 2016 • increase purchasing power meant the ability to afford more goods meaning that workers ate more nutritious food, and clothing improved, but housing didn't Pessimist - Edwin Chadwick had many beliefs on the industrial revolution - said that the growth in wages and employment were strictly limited to male industrial workers while woman and children made less than half of that - was very concerned with sanitation in the early industrial cities. Described the filth and unnatural air. Describes the water being tainted with no one to clear human and animal waste. Discovered cholera in the water and millions of people died. - believed that cause of illness was the smell that comes out of feces that are left out and made the air impure - also focused on the moral corruption that was an outcome of high populations Engels : Conditions of the working class - wrote a book that states the idea of “proletariat” which said the working class 4


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