History 201 Reconstruction Notes
History 201 Reconstruction Notes History 201
Popular in American history to 1877
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
verified elite notetaker
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Wallace on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 201 at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by Munson Chauvin in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see American history to 1877 in History at Southeastern Louisiana University.
Reviews for History 201 Reconstruction Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/24/16
Reconstruction – putting the country back together without slavery Civil War 1861 – 1865 600,000 Americans dead Southern Economy Destroyed Plantation – disarray Ports blocked by Union fleet Economy destroyed 3.5 million emancipated slaves Reconstruction Plans Lincoln’s “10 percent plan” As long as 10% means they are back in the Union 10% of the south Lincoln is assassinated and the plan becomes harsher WadeDavis Bill Instead of 10% it became 50% Half had to pledge allegiance back to U.S. Lincoln vetos this bill Andrew Johnson’s Plans Requires plantation owners to give a case to the U.S. president directly Only planter class had to give this case th 13 Amendment – makes slavery unconstitutional slaves in the Union weren’t freed by Emancipation Proclamation Black Codes – law passed in Southern states Restricted freedoms of former slaves Examples include: voting, ability to own property Sharecropping – pay rent Produced things and it went to the owner of the property Civil Rights Bill 1866 Gives citizen’s rights to slaves – equal protection of the law Johnson vetos this bill – He didn’t want slaves to be equal to whites Congress/Republican take charge rds th Veto overridden by Congress – Congress had a 2/3 vote 14 Amendment – citizen statues given to former slaves Republicans 2/3 of Congress after 1866 Radical Republicans Radically change society – They drive Reconstruction. Opposed rapid restoration of southern states Reconstruction Act 1867 (Military Reconstruction) Aggressive behavior Creates 5 military districts in the south – general in charge Military is making sure the south is doing what Congress wants th North gets to make up the rules 15 Amendment – gives voting rights to former slaves over age of 21 and are males can’t deny voting rights because they were slaves th th th 13 , 14 , 15 – “Civil War Amendments” Election 0f 1868 Ulysses S. Grant (Republican war time hero) Horatio Seymour (Democrat who beat him out) “waving the bloody shirt” Grant goes with Radical Reconstruction o Federal troops stationed in South to make sure Amendments are followed 1872 – Grant reelected Election of 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) Samuel Tilden (Democrat – won popular vote) 3 Southern States – disputed vote for president o South Carolina, Louisiana, Florida Popular Vote – who voted most Electoral Vote – counts (wins the state) Two sets of Electoral Votes Compromise of 1877 Commission Republican Democrat Senate 3 2 House 2 3 Supreme Court 3 2 Total 8 7 Hayes wins Federal Troops withdraw from the south Southern states all go back to democratic rule End to federal role Disenfranchisement – loss of voting rights for former slaves African American suffrage eliminated in South Literacy Test – slaves couldn’t read or write (literacy test decided by the locals) Poll Tax – pay to vote Grandfather Clause – ways for whites to get around literacy test Southern Democrats are back in charge Segregation by law Jim Crow Laws – segregation enacted just after Reconstruction Jim Crow Segregation – races are legally segregated in almost every way Public facilities Schools Restrooms/water fountains Hotels Parks Public transportation Plessy V. Ferguson – 1896 Supreme Court case – land mark decision Separate but equal Opens door for even more segregation of Jim Crow laws across the country Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age 18701900 2 party system – Democrats and Republicans Even split in political parties Several very close presidential elections Power switched back and forth Mostly political stalemate (standstill) Parties had similar positions on major issues Voter turnout very high Politics in the Gilded Age Patronage Reward system for election support Civil Service Government jobs based on votes not merit Spoils System If you win you get everything (control the government) Political contributions compulsive Life blood of both parties Reform of civil service began in Republican Party Split inside of party Halfbreeds – wanted merit system Stalwarts – wanted to keep spoils system Election of 1880 “Rutherfraud” Hayes out presidency winner James A. Garfield (R.) compromise nominee delegates choose him as a compromise on the 36 ballot – (HalfBreed) Half Breeds supported only James Vice Presidential nominee is Chester A. Arthur (R.) – Stalwart (in favor of Ulysses S. Grant) Winfield Scott (D.) Close popular vote – less than 40,000 vote difference Garfield is assassinated Shot in July – died in September 1881 Charles J. Guiteau killed Garfield Civil Service Reform President Arthur signs Pendleton Act in 1883 Gets rid of spoils system Compulsory campaign contributions illegal competitive exams used Election of 1884 James Blaine (R.) Of Maine (Blaine of Maine) Grover Cleveland (D.) “Grover the Good” Illegitimate son Republican clergy “Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion” Irish offered – New York state decided election by about 1000 votes 1 Democrat president in 28 years – Grover wins the election Cleveland Presidency Bachelor President – married Frances Folsom Youngest 1 lady Handsoff creed (won’t grab control of the government) Surplus money (too much money) No income tax Tariffmain revenue source Cleveland proposed to lower tariff Election of 1888 Grover Cleveland (D.) Benjamin Harrison (R.) Big business against Cleveland Tariff – issue Cleveland wins popular vote, but lost election and electoral vote Billion Dollar Congress Thomas B. Reed – speaker of the House aka “Czar” Civil War Pensions – (hand out money to civil war vets) McKinley Tariff 1890 Midterm elections – 235 democrats elected to 88 republicans House/Congress goes Democrat Industrial Age Transcontinental Railroad Union Pacific – Omaha, Nebraska Central Pacific, Sacramento, California Meet in Ogden Utah 1869 “wedding of the rails” 4 more transcontinental lines by 1900 Railroad helps population growth to the west Western cities comes about 4 time zones created 1883 “railroaded” – lives determined by the railroad no regulation on the railway states make attempt to regulate – unconstitutional (goes to federal government) Interstate Commerce Act 1887 – Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) Prohibited pools (railroads can’t set their own price) Some rates regulated st 1 attempt of federal government to regulate business for the good of society U.S. moved from 4 to 1 in Manufacturing from 1865 to 1900 Abundant natural resources Transportation – railroads 440,000 patents issued between 18601890 Second Industrial Revolution 18701900 Thomas A. Edison Mass production – mass consumption st Corporations – established 1 with railroads Not individual ownership Shareholders – shares of the corporation – buy stock able to raise capital Telephone 1876 Alexander Graham Bell Thomas Edison – invents carbon microphone Light Bulb 1879 Human habits changed Electric Age begins Super Inventions Telephone – Alexander Graham Bell Bell Receiver Thomas Edison Carbon microphone Light bulb Phonograph (recordings of sound) Motion picture (video) Steel Andrew Carnegie from Scotland Bessemer Steel Developed in Pittsburg Railroads become steel Skyscrapers begin going up with steel U.S. produced 1/3 of all steel in the world Gilded Age Term from Mark Twain novel Satirizes the materialistic excesses of the time Vanderbilt Mansion – North Carolina Great wealth created by a few Refers to the deep social and economic division covered up by the material excess Innovation and invention still ranged forward Election of 1892 Rematch like 1888 Benjamin Harrison (R.) Grover Cleveland (D.) Grover Cleveland – wins popular vote in 3 straight elections Panic of 1893 – people would run to take money out the bank Economic Depression States with some railroads going bankrupt Banks go bankrupt Last 4 years – Cleveland’s presidency is bankrupt Election of 1896 The Money Question Gold standard in 1896 Prior to Civil war – gold and silver 1873 Congress passed a law that demonetized silver Sound Money position only gold should be used as the standard Inflationist/Free Silver position – wanted more money in the system – unlimited silver William McKinley (R.) – supports business/ higher tariff and gold standard William Jennings Bryan (D.) – 36 – youngest president running “Cross of Gold” Speech McKinley Administration Modern presidency born Public opinion shaped – get people behind what they want Tariff of 1897 – higher Currency Act of 1900 – gold standard as standard Gold discovered in Alaska Economic Recovery Defeated Bryan again in Election of 1900 Expansionism Imperialism More Aggressive – foreign policy Hawaii – American presence already there Pearl Harbor American planters overthrow local Queen Annexation – political issue but not enough votes to make Hawaii territory Spanish American War 1898 Cuba the only area still part of the old Spanish Empire Spanish Empire Cuba Libra – Cuban Independence Revolt American business has close ties with Cuban trade and property Yellow Press – newspapers try to get readers American Sympathy goes toward Cuban Independence Pressure for U.S. intervention Cuban Independence U.S. battleship Maine sent to show force February 15, 1898 Maine explodes in Havana Harbor 260 American sailors killed newspapers say Spain blew it up “Remember the Maine! To hell with Spain!” McKinley under pressure War declared against Spain – April 25, 1898 Teller Amendment – when Spain is defeated Cuba will be independent Expansionist want Philippines Goal – ChinaAsa market – open from American trade George Dewey enters Manila Harbor Spanish fleet destroyed May 1, 1898 American forces take Guam Hawaii annexed July 1898 by vote in Congress Puerto Rico taken by America Theodore Roosevelt Rough Riders (Calvary cowboys) – leads them on the Battle of San Juan Hill Spanish ground forces are defeated July 1, 1898 Spanish fleet in Cuba destroyed July 3, 1898 Spanish sign Armistice (agreement to stop fighting) Aug 12, 1898 fighting is over “Splendid Little War” Treaty of Paris 1898 1. Cuban Independence 2. Puerto Rico and Guam become U.S. territory Debate erupts in Congress over Philippines McKinley decided to annex Philippines Ratification of Treaty by one vote in the Senate Filipinos freedom fighters v. American Marines More die in undeclared war than actual war Election of 1900 Theodore Roosevelt – war hero Elected governor of New York Republicans pick Roosevelt as Vice President Candidate Pan American Expo In Buffalo – McKinley I shot McKinley assassination Roosevelt becomes youngest president ever Roosevelt Foreign Policy Monroe Doctrine – Roosevelt Corollary – U.S. to intervene in Latin American on behalf of U.S. interest “Speak softly and carry a big stick” (huge navy while speaking softly) Big Stick – U.S. Navy Roosevelt Presidency Panama Canal Isthmus of Panama – narrow land connected to large piece of land Links the Pacific and Atlantic Columbia – rejects deal $10 million for rights U.S. to lease canal zone 250,000 annual lease zone Panama the Nation Progressive Movement Better Society Reduction in government corruption business corruption and abuses poor working conditions, poor living conditions, poor urban conditions, child labor, poverty Established to reduce these things and because they needed to happen Women’s voting rights Improve wages Improve education Set professional standards Role in Progressivism Muckrakers Investigate crusading journalism How the Other Half Lives – Jacob A. Riis 1890 Beginning of Progressive Era The Octopus 1901 Frank Norris – about Standard Oil Company – controls lots of things How corporation own other businesses linked to their business Hepburn Act of 1906 – allow the ICC to set maximum rail rates First time ever government steps in The Jungle 1906 by Upton Sinclair Exposes Meat Packing Industry Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 Food and Drug standards and regulations Meat Inspection Act 1906 Regulation of the meat packing industry Roosevelt Presidency “Trust Buster” because of the number of lawsuits filed by his administration wants to break up business trust “Bad Trust” – regulate business conservationist president – sets aside land for national forest and parks Election 1904 – defeats Alton B. Parker D. Panic of 1907 “Theodore the Meddler” “Roosevelt Panic” financial crisis short lived banks unable to increase the volume of money in circulation banking reform now on the agenda Election of 1908 Roosevelt promised that he would not run Picked William Howard Taft o Secretary of war o “My Policies” Roosevelt’s policies William Jennings Bryan – Democratic nominee William Howard Taft Defeats William Jennings Bryan Supported constitutional amendment for income tax Filed more antitrust lawsuits than Roosevelt Set aside more forest lands than Roosevelt Republicans divided – Progressives and Conservatives Taft political inept Unable to mediate between the two factions Progressives wanted Taft out Election of 1912 Roosevelt seeks the Republican party nomination – so does Taft Roosevelt wins 13 state primary elections Taft controls delegates at Chicago convention Nomination goes to Taft Roosevelt bolts Republic party leaves Bull Moose Campaign Progressive Party – The Bull Moose Party Woodrow Wilson – Government of New Jersey Former president of Princeton New Nationalism – Roosevelt’s platform business – regulate trust New Freedom – Wilson’s platform – destroy business trust Attempted assassination on Roosevelt Republicans split the vote Wilson wins Progressive Era Cothtitutional Amendment 16 Amendment – 1913 – Income Tax 17 Amendment – 1913 – direct election of U.S. senators 18 Amendment – 1919 – Prohibition th 19 Amendment – 1919 – Women’s suffrage 18 Amendment Temperance movement Antisaloon League States begin to outlaw alcohol WWI helped push it over for ratification Prohibition 19 Amendment Wyoming 1869 New Western states allowed women voting rights Illinois 1913 New tactics – women’s rights to women’s attributes National American Woman Suffrage Association 1920 – only 10 southern states denied women
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'