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AMH2020 Ch 18 Textbook Notes

by: Erin O'Halloran

AMH2020 Ch 18 Textbook Notes AMH2020

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Erin O'Halloran

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Professor Bredehoeft, Quiz on Ch 18 material due 9/25
American History Since 1877
Brian Bredehoeft
Class Notes
#Americanhistory, #immigration, #newconsumerism, #darwinism
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin O'Halloran on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMH2020 at University of Florida taught by Brian Bredehoeft in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
AMH2020 Professor Bredehoeft Chapter 18 T extbook Notes Key Terms highlighted The New Urban Growth Migrations - Greatest amount came from Europe • By the 1890s more than half of all immigrants came from S and E Europe • Immigrants arrived with little money or education • Worked mainly unskilled jobs Adjustment for immigrants Neighborhoods - Ethnic communities were built through “immigrant ghettoes” • Provided newspapers in their language, native food, church, etc. • Many stayed in touch with family that did not migrate Importance of Ethnic Ties - Immigrant groups whom stayed together often kept cultures alive that are important to succeed • Ex: Jews consider education of the utmost importance - Cultures that celebrated other values did not economically succeed as fast • Ex: Value of strengthening family Assimilation - Pressure to assimilate: Schools taught English • • Employers wanted English speakers • Stores sold American products • Church leaders primarily American - Organizations: • American Protective Association - Founded by Henry Bowers in 1887 - Committed to stopping all immigration • Immigration Restriction League - Proposed screening immigrants with literacy tests, etc - Separating the “desirable” from the “undesirable” - Government • In 1882 Congress denied all Chinese, convicts, paupers, and the mentally disabled • 50 cent tax on every immigrant • 1890s, The list of denied grew The Urban Landscape Public Space - Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux designed Central Park to promote an escape from the regularities of urban life (late 1850s) - Wealthy residents were responsible for libraries, opera houses, museums, etc 1893 Columbian Exposition - A world fair created in Chicago to celebrate the anniversary of Columbus’s discovery of America - The “Great White City” was a cluster of neoclassical buildings in the center of the exposition, inspiration for the “city beautiful movement” The “City Beautiful” Movement - Promoted urbanizing cities and clearing out land in order to expand the city - Ex: Boston cleared out an area of marsh to create the neighborhood “Back Bay” (late 1880s) Housing - Cheap labor reduced the cost of building New Suburbs - Residential communities built on the outskirts of cities connected by railroads - Attracted those who appreciated countryside with backyards and manorial style housing Tenements - Most immigrants could not afford a house in the city or suburb - Tenements became poor housing with many windowless rooms - Jacob Riis (Danish immigrant and NY photographer) published descriptions and photos of the miserable housing in his book How the Other Half Lives Transportation - Elevated railway- opened in New York, 1870 - Cable cars- introduced in New York, Chicago, San Francisco, and Boston - Electric trolley- opened in Richmond, VA in 1888 - First American subway- Boston, 1897 Construction - First “skyscraper" • Built in Chicago, 1884 10 stories • Inspired a new era of building architecture • - New materials • Began steel frame construction in order to prevent fires and hold more weight Strains of Urban Life Environmental Problems Fire and Disease - Chicago and Boston experienced “great fires” in 1871 - Cities began to fireproof • Created fire stations • Using steel to build - Disease was a fire hazard due to lack of sewage system and an abundance of contaminated water • Sewage systems not developed until 1870s Air pollution - 1910, American cities developed sewage disposal systems To prevent respiratory infection and related diseases that became common • Yellow Fever— killed approx 5,000 in Memphis, TN • Federal Government action - The Public Health Service was created in 1912 • Established common health standards for factories • Created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (1970)— gave government power to require businesses to provide safe and healthy workplaces Poverty, Crime and Violence Urban growth created extreme poverty - Public agencies and philanthropic organizations offered little help - Middle class believed giving too much would create dependency - Investigations done by organizations to separate “deserving” and “undeserving” • Ex: Salvation Army, began in 1879 Poverty/Crowding created crime and violence - American citizens blamed the increase in crime on immigrant groups • They were just as likely to commit crimes • Developed larger police forces - Urban National Guard groups patrolled areas outside of neighborhoods and stored large amounts of weapons in case of uprising - Sister Carrie by Theodore Dreiser • Told the story of a women having to support herself through exploitation by men The “Urban Boss” - Required to win votes for his organization - May give occasional relief to citizens (groceries, bag of coal, etc) - William M. Tweed— boss of NYC’s Tammany Hall in the 1860s • Used public funds wrongly • Ended up in jail (1872) The Rise of Mass Consumption Income and Consumption - T he Middle class grew dramatically - Wages for some increased by a third between 1890 and 1910 Women, African Americans, and immigrants saw a slower increase • New Consumerism - New markets for consumer goods created • “Ready made” clothing • Buying and preparing food Opening of “chain stores” as well as department stores - Led to the National Consumers League that worked towards opening up more jobs for women (Ex: clerks and waitresses) Leisure in the Consumer Society Leisure time - In The Theory of Prosperity (1902) and The New Basis of Civilization (1910), Simon Patten examined how the new growth of economy and leisure time has changed citizen’s fear of poverty and scarcity Sports - By the 1830s baseball and other sports became popular - Basketball was invented by Dr. James A. Naismith in Springfield, MA (1891) Music, Theater, and Movies - Vaudevile • Included mixture of acts (musicians, magicians, comedians, etc) • Florenz Ziegfeld was a big promoter in NY • Open to black performers - Movies— first source of mass entertainment • Silent Films Leisure time spent in public places - “Coney Island”— popular theme park in Brooklyn opened in 1903 • Daily # of visitors in 1904 was 90,000 Leisure time in private spaces - Dime Novels— spent time reading novels of new genre (mystery, history, sci-fi, etc) and poetry • Little Women by Louisa May Alcott sold over 2 million copies Mass Communication Journalism - # daily of newspapers increased from 3 million to 24 million copies between 1870 and 1910 - William Randolph Hearst was the most powerful owner, controlling 9 newspapers and 2 magazines The Telephone— invented in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell - The profession of a “telephone operator” was born with the invention of a “switchboard” Telephone user called a central telephone office to be connected with others - The Bell System controlled the American telephone service • Made AT&T a powerful corporation High Culture in the Urban Age - Cultural activities began to make a distinction between classes of all people Literature and Art Literary Realism— strived to change urban social reality - Stephen Crane known for his novels of the Civil War • The Red Badge of Courage (1895) • Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893) - Other prominent writers: Theodore Dreiser, Frank Norris, Upton Sinclair - Kate Chopin challenged the idea of traditional marriage with The Awakening (1899) - William Dean Howells explored the selfish American lifestyle in The Rise of the Silas Lapham Artists created new styles - Prominent artists: Winslow Homer, James McNeil - Ashcan school explored naturalism while depicting the new social realities John Sloan, George Bellows, Edward Hopper • • The Armory Show displayed their work in NYC Darwinism— the theory of evolution - Began with Charles Darwin • English naturalist • Believed humans have evolved from earlier forms of life through “natural selection” - Division over Darwinism— Bigger separation between classes • Created a rise of Protestant fundamentalism Social Darwinism - Began with William Graham Sumner and others Pragmatism - Society should begin to rely on scientific knowledge and not inherited guidance Individuals - William James— main publicist of the theory - Edward A. Ross and Lester Frank Ward urged the use of the scientific method to solve societal problems - Frederick Jackson Turner and Charles Beard explained that economic evolution has moved society forward, not religious factors - John Dewey introduced a new way of education - Inspired some to look at the principles of Indians as their culture was original and worthy of conservation Education - Free public primary and secondary schools spread - School attendance laws were created in 31 states - Education reformers attempted to included Indian tribes but they refused College - The Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 gave public land to states in order to build universities • Some philanthropists named universities after their family names (Ex: Vanderbilt, Cornell, Duke, etc) • Land grants wanted to advance intellect in “agriculture and mechanics” - Private universities also became popular to research Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1865) = engineering • John Hopkins = medicine • Women in Education • Public high schools accepted women, but few higher education opportunities • Mount Holyoke in Massachusetts began as a “seminary” for women (1836), became a full college in the 1880s • Large universities created separate colleges for women (Ex: Barnard at Columbia, Radcliffe at Harvard) Medical Science - Improving Technology: X-ray, microscopes, laboratory tests - Medicine: Aspirin (1899) - Surgery: Blood transfusions used by G.W. Critle (1906), sterilized equipment, surgical gloves - The Germ Theory Germs itself did not cause disease by itself, but also genetic predisposition, medical history • etc - Declining morality attracted students from around the world to come to America for study


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