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English research paper

by: Valentine Notetaker

English research paper biology 2020

Valentine Notetaker

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Format of research paper and work cited page
Cell Biology
Wiedemeier Allison
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Valentine Notetaker on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to biology 2020 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Wiedemeier Allison in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Cell Biology in Science at University of Louisiana at Monroe.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Ayika 1 Valentine Ayika Professor Rambin  English 1002 22 March 2016 MLDA: Keeping the Poison from the Youth In the moments of drinking until names are forgotten and smoking until the holes within  are filled the pain is numbed, and peace becomes absolute within and in the world around.  Young people would read this and see only beauty because the concept of action and  consequences is something new to them, and so guidance is essential. The US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) made reports of an immense decline in lives lost to auto  crash accidents due to driving under the influence. This decline was traced back to the effective  enforcing of Minimal Legal Drinking Age (MLDA) (Callaghan et al. 2013). Stats showed that  28,315 lives were saved with the years of 1975 to 2010. However, the MDLA is now being set  on trial; people are now calling into question the effectiveness of this system. The basis of this  trail is based upon the overwhelming evidence of the effectiveness of the MDLA dating back to  the 1980s. Which was the time when contrasts could be made with states that didn’t have the  MDLA laws, to show its effectiveness of its implementation. (Callaghan et al.2013). However,  ever since all fifty states adopted the MDLA laws 1988, recreation of such experiments have not  been possible. Although such is the case, it does not completely erase the fact that the MDLA  since its implementation has saved a ridiculous amount of lives (Callaghan et al.2013). Ayika 2 This attack on the MDLA laws is not something new; it has always known opposition.  During the Vietnam era for example, the MDLA was lowered by an argument brought up that “If 18­year­olds were old enough to fight in the Vietnam War, they should be old enough to legally  drink (Subbarman and Kerr 292).” This victory was short lived as the Federal Uniform Drinking  Age Act (FUDDA) stepped in and asserted that the MDLA be set back to 21. Federal highway  funding was set on the line to be withdrawn to all those who failed to adhere, and so by 1988 all  states gave in and adopted the policy (Subbarman and Kerr 292). It is clear and a very valid point that if an individual is given the power to decide to put his life at stake to die in war, then he  should also be given the power to do as he pleases with alcohol. In reality however, it is not as  simple to say, that by giving an individual the right to do as he pleases with alcohol puts only  himself at risk. It is normal that a child at the age of eighteen lives with his parents and siblings.  This means his siblings, and household is affected. Alcohol taken in large amounts no doubt has  negative long term and short term side effects that tear families and individuals apart. A child at  eighteen however may see only the short term effects and deem the wonderful feeling of lack of  care it gives as worth the risk. It cannot be ignored that the MDLA law in itself is flawed, both in its implementation  and those who are supposed to implement it. Nonetheless, its ability to save lives and prevent  injuries and violence excels far beyond these flaws. A clear example is engraved in the words of  this quotation: Alcohol consumption is the third leading actual cause of death in the United  States, a major contributing factor to unintentional injuries, the leading cause of  death for youths and young adults, and accounts for an estimated 75,000 or more  Ayika 3 total deaths in the United States annually… Underage drinkers drink on fewer  occasions, but when they drink they are more likely to binge drink. In recognition  of the harms caused by underage drinking the US Surgeon General issued a Call  to Action in 2007 to prevent and reduce drinking among youths. (Wechsler and  Nelson 986) Having a good time is always the initial thought going through the mind of an individual as he or she engages in binge drinking. Binge drinking however, has been explained by experts to have a  higher propensity to result in brain damage faster as well as more severely than chronic drinking. This is caused by the neurotoxic effects of the repeated rebound withdrawal effects. Under the  influence everything seems to make sense, and so the safety of others is put at stake, not only is  the life of the intoxicated at stake; but also the lives of those within the vicinity. This seemingly never ending battle on the threshold of the effectiveness of MDLA laws  has not been one that can be ignored by the people or the government. The delicate situation is  one that leaves no one unaffected, therefore passive voices are not common. The government has endlessly put organizations overflowing with experts to tend to the matter, and to produce more  effective implementation laws while simultaneously eliminating the less effective ones. This  seems like the most logical solution as it is an economic use of finance and mental power. As  oppose to formulating a whole new system and eliminating the MDLA laws. Among the  Organizations burdened to analyze the MDLA laws are as follows: National Institute on Alcohol  Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), NHTSA, Health Service Administration (HAS), National  Research Council  and Institute of Medicine of the National Academics, etc (Wechsler and  Nelson). The list is endless, and shows that the government knows the delicacy of the situation.  Ayika 4 This debate is one that has clearly been in place since the early 1980s. The MDLA has been in  effect since it was first established. This is not only because it prevents deaths, but because it  also protects the living. The trickledown effect is one that brings the matter not hypothetically to the home, but  literally. This effect as explained by experts is similar to the ripple effect of a stone thrown into  still waters. It starts concentrated in a given area but uncontrollably spreads across the surface. If  18­year­olds are given the power to buy alcohol, it indirectly gives the age group of 15­17 access to alcohol. This is not in fact limited to the stated age group, but is however limited to high  school. Nonetheless, this limitation does not eclipse the fact that there would be an immense  influx of 14 and 15 year olds into hospitals (Addiction. 108. 1601­1602). This hospitalization  due to alcohol consumption would be a critical one, because at this tender age the liver is  undoubtedly not equipped to handle such high dosages of the drug, and neither is the brain. Like  every system the MDLA is flawed, but it prevents death and protects the living and this is in fact  its primary purpose. The idea of the MDLA is not flawed the system is, and every system can be  cleansed to produce a better one.    Ayika 5 Works Cited Wagenaar, Alexander C., Traci L. Toomey, and Kathleen M. Lenk. "Environmental Influences  On Young Adult Drinking." Alcohol Research & Health 28.4 (2004): 230­235. Toomey, TL, TF Nelson, and KM Lenk. "The Age­21 Minimum Legal Drinking Age: A Case  Study Linking Past And Current Debates." Addiction 104.12 (2009): 1958­1965 8p. Voas, Robert B. "Commentary on Callaghan Et Al. (2013): Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws  Protect High School students from both Crashes and Alcohol abuse.” Addiction  108.9(2013): 1601­1602. Wechsler, H, and TF Nelson. "Will increasing alcohol availability by lowering the Minimum  Legal Drinking Age decrease drinking and related consequences among youths?”  American Journal of Public Health 100, no.6.  Ayika 6


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