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Chapter 1 Notes

by: Kaci Gilmer

Chapter 1 Notes HUMN

Kaci Gilmer

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About this Document

This talks about the prehistoric past and the earliest civilizations.
Introduction to Humanities
Allison Budaj
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaci Gilmer on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HUMN at Chattahoochee Technical College taught by Allison Budaj in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Humanities in Humanities at Chattahoochee Technical College.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Chapter 1 Notes Prehistoric Past and Earliest Civilizations Prehistoric people lived before the time of writing Culture encompasses the values and behaviors shared by a group of people, developed over time, and passed down through the generations; it manifests itself in the laws, customs, ritual behavior, and artistic production Civilization is a social, economic, and political entity distinguished by the ability to express itself through images and written language; myths were created that explained their origins and relation to the world Bronze Age was when the science of metallurgy developed (bone and stone tools was replaced with metal) The Beginnings of Culture Agency and Ritual  Agency was created to exert some power or authority over the world of those who came into contact with them  Rituals are a rite or ceremony habitually practiced by a group, often in a religious or quasi-religious context  Shaman is a person thought to have special ability to communicate with the spirit world The Beginnings of Culture in Paleolithic Culture and Its Artifacts  Homo sapiens are distinguished from earlier hominids by the lighter build of their skeletal structure and larger brain  Woman (Venus of Willendorf) in Austria was symbolism to their ideal of female beauty The Rise of Agriculture People began to cultivate more edible grasses in the Mediterranean (wheat), Asia (millet and rice), and the Americas (squash, beans, and corn) Defined the Neolithic era Woman seated between two felines was found in a grain bin that was first excavated by Sir James Mellaart in 1958 Neolithic pottery was used to carry and store water & to prepare and store certain types of food The Neolithic Megaliths of Northern Europe  Megaliths works were constructed without the use of mortar and represent the most basic form of architectural construction  Menhirs were upright stones stuck into the ground which were considered as posts  Represented in tribute to the strength of the leaders responsible for assembling and maintaining the considerable labor force required to construct them  The cromlech is the most famous type of megalithic structure  Stonehedge is the most famous megalithic structure in the world Myth in the Native American Cultures Pueblo people can trace ancestry back to the Anasazi from 900 to 1300 CE Left no written record of their culture, only ruins and artifacts Kiva is the cultural center of the village life Sipapu is a small, round hole symbolic of the Anasazi creation of myth, which told of the emergence of the Anasazi’s ancestors from the depths of the earth They believed that they originated in the womb of Mother Earth and were called out into the daylight by their Sun Father; it was known as an emergence table, which is known as a form of creation myth Kachina spirits manifest themselves in performances and dance The forces of nature are inhabited by living spirits called animism Japan and the Role of Myth in the Shinto Shrine  Japan reflects on the religion of Shinto  The 3 sacred treasures of Shinto or Imperial regalia is valor in the sword, wisdom in the mirror, and benevolence in the jewel necklace Mesopotamia: Power and Social Order in the Early Middle East  The land between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers  C. Leonard Wooley and his team would discover one of the richest treasure troves in the history of archeology in the ruins of the ancient city of UR  Ziggurat is a pyramidal temple structure consisting of successive platforms with outside staircases and a shrine at the top  Contains of bodies, rooms, vessels, crowns, necklaces, statues, weapons, jewelery and lyres made of electrum and lapis lazuli  The platforms might have been covered with soil and planted with trees  A sanctuary is topped on the ziggurat that might have symbolized the bridge between heaven and earth Sumerian Ur  Ur is not the oldest city to occupy the southern plains of Mesopotamia  Religion was central to the people of Ur  Social perspective (hieratic scale) are most important figures are represented as larger than the others Akkad  Conquered virtually all other cities in Mesopotamia to become the region’s most powerful city-state  Narrative genre is a class or category of story with a universal theme  Adopted Sumerian culture and customs, and including their style of cuneiform writing, which is a script made from wedge-shaped characters Babylon  Hammurabi imposed order on Babylon, where laxness and disorder  A giant stele inscribed with the so-called Law Code of Hammurabi survives; the purpose was to celebrate his sense of justice and the wisdom of his rule & tells as much about the daily lives of Mesopotamian peoples Mesopotamian Literature  The Epic of Gilgamesh is the first known literary work to confront the idea of death  Epic is a long, narrative poem in elevated language that follows characters of a high position through a series of adventures  Preserves the historical lineage of all Mesopotamian kings  Consists of 2,900 lines in Akkadian cuneiform script  Epithets are words or phrases that characterize a person  Metaphors are words or phrases used in place of another to suggest similarity  Similes compare two unlike things by the use of the word “like” The Hebrews Moses and the Ten Commandments  Forced out of their homeland in the Mesopotamian basin in about 2000 BCE  The biblical story of Moses and the Ten Commandments embodies the centrality of the centrality of the written word to Jewish culture Ancient Egypt  The civilization developed along the last 750 of the river’s over 4,000 plus miles  Egypt called himself Kemet (Black Land)  Composite is integration of multiple perspectives into a single unified image The Old Kingdom The Egyptian buried their dead on the west side of the Nile, where the sun sets, a symbolic reference to the death and rebirth Ka is the idea comparable to an enduring “soul” or “life force” Ba is an individual identity in which its personality might also manifest Pyramids was the first monumental royal tomb The New Kingdom  Amenhotep IV abolished the pantheon of Egyptian gods and established a monotheistic religion in which the sun disk Aten was worshipped exclusively  He believed the sun was the creator of all life, and he was so dedicated to Aten that he changed his own name to Akhenaten  The move transformed Egypt’s political and cultural as well as religious life


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