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BISC 1005, Week 1

by: Jaimee Kidd

BISC 1005, Week 1 BISC 1005

Jaimee Kidd
GPA 3.6
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Ecosystem Dynamics Part 1
The Biology of Nutrition and Health
Scully, T
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaimee Kidd on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biology at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Ecosystems  Dynamics  Part  1     Ecosystem-­‐  All  the  living  (biotic)  and  non-­‐living  (abiotic)  factors  in  a  defined  area.       •   How  does  this  relate  to  you?   ◦   Skin   ◦   Belly  Button   ◦   Digestive  Tract   ◦   Body   Commonality  Around  the  Universe   •   Abiotic  Ingredients   ◦   Things  that  aren’t  living  or  organic   ◦   Atoms-­‐  made  up  of  smaller  but  unstable  ingredients   •   Chemical  Stuff/  Substance/  Molecules/  Compounds   ◦   Elements  brought  together  to  make  complex  structures   Water   •   Everyone  needs  it,  many  substances  love  it  (sugar,  salt,  carbs,  proteins,  nucleic  acids,   etc.)  ,  others  hate  it  (fats)   •   Within  each  cell  there’s  66%  water     •   Polarity  of  Water(H2O)   ◦   Slightly  Positive-­‐  Hydrogen   ◦   Slightly  Negative-­‐  Oxygen   Where  Did  Life  Originate  on  Earth?   •   Biotic  ingredients-­‐  things  within  a  living  organism   ◦   Organic  Molecules   ▪   Composed  of  at  least  one  carbon  atom  bound  to  at  least  one  hydrogen   atom,  everything  else  is  up  for  grabs   ▪   Most  basic  example-­‐  Hydrocarbons  (fossil  fuels)   ◦   Proteins   ▪   Encoded  within  our  DNA   ▪   Variation  comes  from  proteins     ◦   Nucleic  Acids   ▪   DNA  &  RNA   ▪   Inheritance  molecule,  passed  down  from  cell  to  cell,  from  organism  to   organism,  to  combine  genetic  information  to  make  something  new  (in   humans),  in  other  organisms  they  only  replicate  this  information     ◦   Fats   ▪   Very  similar  to  hydrocarbons     ▪   Make  sure  we  have  a  barrier  to  the  outside  world   ▪   Make  for  membrane  and  communication  substances  such  as  hormones   ◦   Carbohydrates   ▪   A  sugar  is  a  carbohydrate,  but  not  all  carbohydrates  are  sugars   Where  Did  We  Come  From?   •   Life  is  complicated...   ◦   Many  attempts   ◦   Many  failures   •   Success  has  common  features     Characteristics  Defining  “Life"   •   Barrier   ◦   Where  fats  come  into  play.  The  universal  barrier  for  all  of  life  is  referred  to  as  a   cell  membrane.     •   Inheritance   ◦   DNA  is  the  universal  molecule  for  inheritance,  everything  is  encoded  in  this   structure   •   Make  New   ◦   All  organisms  have  to  be  able  to  reproduce   ◦   Two  kinds  of  reproduction   ▪   (1)  Asexual   ▪   Copy,  copy,  copy   ▪   (2)  Sexual   ▪   Allows  for  adaption  to  new  changes  and  environments   •   Get  Info   ◦   Within  cell  membranes  there  are  substances  that  hang  out  and  wait  to  detect   information     •   Power   ◦   All  organisms  can  take  in  energy  in  some  form   ◦   Humans,  for  example,  can  only  take  in  chemical  energy   •   Become  an  Adult   •   Sustain   ◦   Have  to  be  able  to  go  through  a  process  called  homeostasis  where  you  have  to   be  able  to  maintain  an  internal  environment  while  being  able  to  get  in  and  out   what  you  need  and  don’t  need   •   Change   ◦   For  a  species-­‐  change  over  time  is  evolution   What  Does  Success  Look  Like  After  a  Billion  Years?   •   Eukaryotic  Cells  (More  complex  than  Prokaryotic,  Much  larger,  able  to  extract  much   more  energy)   •   Prokaryotic  cells  are  single  and  hang  out  by  themselves   Endosymbiotic  Theory   •   A  large  eukaryotic  cell  engulfed  (ate)  a  smaller  prokaryote   ◦   Food  became  friend   ◦   Imparted  beneficial  support     •   —>  Became  what  we  know  as  chloroplasts  because  algae  and  plant  cells  created  this   relationship  and  found  they  could  produce  their  own  food     •   —>  Same  thing  happened  to  create  the  mitochondria  which  can  create  a  lot  of  energy   from  glucose     Diversity  of  Life  (LAB  1)   •   Prokaryotes   ◦   Simplistic  forms  of  life   ◦   Evolved  all  forms  of  food  production/consumption  that  exist  today   •   Eukaryotes   ◦   Decomposers   ◦   Extremely  important  in  cycling  nutrients      


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