BISC 1005, Week 1
BISC 1005, Week 1 BISC 1005
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaimee Kidd on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
Ecosystems Dynamics Part 1 Ecosystem-‐ All the living (biotic) and non-‐living (abiotic) factors in a defined area. • How does this relate to you? ◦ Skin ◦ Belly Button ◦ Digestive Tract ◦ Body Commonality Around the Universe • Abiotic Ingredients ◦ Things that aren’t living or organic ◦ Atoms-‐ made up of smaller but unstable ingredients • Chemical Stuff/ Substance/ Molecules/ Compounds ◦ Elements brought together to make complex structures Water • Everyone needs it, many substances love it (sugar, salt, carbs, proteins, nucleic acids, etc.) , others hate it (fats) • Within each cell there’s 66% water • Polarity of Water(H2O) ◦ Slightly Positive-‐ Hydrogen ◦ Slightly Negative-‐ Oxygen Where Did Life Originate on Earth? • Biotic ingredients-‐ things within a living organism ◦ Organic Molecules ▪ Composed of at least one carbon atom bound to at least one hydrogen atom, everything else is up for grabs ▪ Most basic example-‐ Hydrocarbons (fossil fuels) ◦ Proteins ▪ Encoded within our DNA ▪ Variation comes from proteins ◦ Nucleic Acids ▪ DNA & RNA ▪ Inheritance molecule, passed down from cell to cell, from organism to organism, to combine genetic information to make something new (in humans), in other organisms they only replicate this information ◦ Fats ▪ Very similar to hydrocarbons ▪ Make sure we have a barrier to the outside world ▪ Make for membrane and communication substances such as hormones ◦ Carbohydrates ▪ A sugar is a carbohydrate, but not all carbohydrates are sugars Where Did We Come From? • Life is complicated... ◦ Many attempts ◦ Many failures • Success has common features Characteristics Defining “Life" • Barrier ◦ Where fats come into play. The universal barrier for all of life is referred to as a cell membrane. • Inheritance ◦ DNA is the universal molecule for inheritance, everything is encoded in this structure • Make New ◦ All organisms have to be able to reproduce ◦ Two kinds of reproduction ▪ (1) Asexual ▪ Copy, copy, copy ▪ (2) Sexual ▪ Allows for adaption to new changes and environments • Get Info ◦ Within cell membranes there are substances that hang out and wait to detect information • Power ◦ All organisms can take in energy in some form ◦ Humans, for example, can only take in chemical energy • Become an Adult • Sustain ◦ Have to be able to go through a process called homeostasis where you have to be able to maintain an internal environment while being able to get in and out what you need and don’t need • Change ◦ For a species-‐ change over time is evolution What Does Success Look Like After a Billion Years? • Eukaryotic Cells (More complex than Prokaryotic, Much larger, able to extract much more energy) • Prokaryotic cells are single and hang out by themselves Endosymbiotic Theory • A large eukaryotic cell engulfed (ate) a smaller prokaryote ◦ Food became friend ◦ Imparted beneficial support • —> Became what we know as chloroplasts because algae and plant cells created this relationship and found they could produce their own food • —> Same thing happened to create the mitochondria which can create a lot of energy from glucose Diversity of Life (LAB 1) • Prokaryotes ◦ Simplistic forms of life ◦ Evolved all forms of food production/consumption that exist today • Eukaryotes ◦ Decomposers ◦ Extremely important in cycling nutrients
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