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BISC 1005, Week 3

by: Jaimee Kidd

BISC 1005, Week 3 BISC 1005

Jaimee Kidd
GPA 3.6

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The Biology of Nutrition and Health
Scully, T
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaimee Kidd on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biology at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Photosynthesis     •   Photosynthetic  eukaryotes  have  specialized  organelles  called  chloroplasts   •   Not  all  cells  within  a  plant  can  perform  photosynthesis   •   Capturing  energy  from  sunlight   ◦   what  do  plants  need  to  make  food?   ▪   Sunlight-­‐  free   ▪   Water  and  Minerals-­‐  roots   ▪   Carbon  dioxide-­‐  stomata   ▪   Pigments-­‐  chloroplasts     •   What  is  light?   ◦   Photons   ▪   Packets  of  energy  and  exhibit  wavelike  characteristics   ▪   Measured  in  wavelengths   ▪   Part  of  the  electromagnetic  spectrum   •   What  are  pigments?   ◦   The  color  of  an  object  is  determined  by  the  wavelengths  it  reflects   ◦   Absorbs  light   ▪   Radiates  heat   ▪   Radiates  light   ▪   Transforms  into  chemical  energy     •   Step  1:  Light  Reactions   ◦   Photosystem:  light  energy  to  electrical  to  chemical  energy   ▪   Conversion  stations   ◦   PHOTO  part   ▪   (1)  Antennae  Complex/Reaction  Center   ▪   Arrangement  of  pigments   ▪   Capture  energy  from  light   ▪   Pass  energy  to  chlorophyll  a  (only  one  that  can  make  the   conversion  of  that  light  energy  into  electrical  energy)   ▪   (2)  Electron  Transport  Chain   ▪   Electricity  fuels  production  of  ATP  and  NADPH   ▪   Key  Players:  Energy  Carriers   ▪   To  make  or  break  down  food  you  need  these  substances   ▪   Chemical  carrier   ▪   ATP   ▪   Receive,  Store,  Deliver   ▪   UNIVERSAL  ENERGY  MOLECULE   ▪   Electron  carriers   ▪   NADPH,  FADH2,  NADH   ▪   all  deliver  electrons   ▪   NADPH-­‐  think  P  for  Photosynthesis   ▪   Lost  electron!!!!   ▪   Needs  to  be  replaced  for  system  to  continue   ▪   Splitting  of  H20  producing  electrons,  O2  and  H+   ▪   (this  is  where  the  electricity  comes  from  in  order  to   perform  photosynthesis)   •   Step  2:  Dark  Reactions:  Synthesis  Part   ◦   Transform  chemical/electrical  energy  into  food   ▪   aka  Calvin  Cycle   ◦   Calvin  Cycle   ▪   (1)  Carbon  Fixation:  Rubisco  catalyzes  CO2  fixation  to  RuBP   ▪   taking  anything  organic  and  making  inorganic   ▪   instable  sugar   ▪   (2)  Energize  Sugar:  NADPH  donates  electrons  and  ATP  donates  a   phosphate   ▪   (3)  Sugar  Exits   ▪   (4)  Recycle  RuBP     Photosynthesis  Ingredients            Plants:   •   sunlight—light  energy  (electromagnetic)     •   Water  &  minerals  —  from  the  roots   •   Co2—source  inorganic  carbon  (not  food)  —>  organic  food   •   pigments—conversion  of  light  energy  —>  electric  energy  —>  chemical  energy              Photo:     •   Light  +  H2O  +  Pigments  (chloroplasts)     ◦   involves  photosystems  in  chloroplasts  with  chlorophyll  —>  electricity  —>  ATP  +   NADPH  (products)   ▪   Water  goes  into  the  photosystems  and  oxygen  comes  out            Synthesis:  Calvin  Cycle   •   (1)  Existing  organic  molecule  +  carbon  fixation  —>  unstable  organic  molecule   •   (2)  energize  organic  molecule  +  ATP  +  NADPH    —>  stable  sugar   •   (3)  Sugar  exits  to  be  used  by  the  plant   •   (4)  Recycle  the  beginning  organic  molecule     Fungi   •   Unsung  heroes   •   Decomposers   ◦   Single-­‐celled  or  multicellular   ◦   Chemoheterotrophs   ◦   Chitin  —  very  cool  carb!   •   Metabolism   ◦   Anaerobic   ◦   Aerobic   •   Very  strong  cells   •   Very  large  organisms   ◦   Hyphae   ◦   Mycelium   •   Mushrooms   ◦   Reproductive  structures     Antibiotics  Use  Link  to  Type  2  Diabetes   •   Antibiotic  prescriptions  for  170,504  people  who  had  type  2  diabetes  and  compared   them  with  1.3  million  people  who  did  not   •   New  study  in  JAMA  half  American  adults  have  diabetes  or  are  pre-­‐diabetic     Molluscs   •   Bivalves   ◦   Oysters,  mussles,  clams   •   Gastropods   ◦   Snails   •   Cephalaopods   ◦   Squid   ◦   Octopus   •   Characteristics   ◦   Some  sort  of  hardened  material   ◦   Soft  bodied   •   Nutritional  value:     ◦   High  in  B  vitamins,  good  fats,  and  protein     Anthropods   •   Insects   ◦   Grasshoppers,  beetles,  etc.   •   Crustaceans   ◦   Crab,  lobster,  crawfish,  shrimp   •   Characteristics   ◦   Exosketelton  —  Chitin   ◦   Paired  appendages   •   Nutritional  value:   ◦   Great  fiber   ◦   High  in  protein,  minerals  and  vitamins   ◦   Low  calorie  snack     Vertebrates  You  Consume   •   Fishes   ◦   Freshwater   ▪   Bony  fish:  arapaima,  trout,  catfish   ◦   Saltwater   ▪   Cartilaginous:  shark,  skate,  and  ray   ▪   Bony  fish:  rock  fish,  mackerel,  blue  fish,  salmon,  tuna   •   Nutritional  value:       Meat  From  Land  Animals   •   Most  meat  consumed  in  US   ◦   Poultry  (100.5)   ◦   Cattle  (54.5)   ◦   Swine  (46.4)   ◦   Sheep  (1.3)   •   Nutrional  Value:   ◦   High  protein,  bad  fat,  and  minerals   •   Things  to  consider:   ◦   CAFOs  (Concentrated  animal  feeding  operations)   ◦   Antibiotic  use   ◦   Impact  of  growing  most  crops  to  feed  animals     Where  are  Those  Trans  Fats?   •   what  element  really  defines  life?   ◦   Carbon   ▪   any  organic  substance  has  one  carbon  at  least     •   What  molecule  is  most  prevalent  in  the  human  body?   ◦   water   •   The  Chemical  Building  Blocks  of  Life   ◦   4  Major  hydrocarbons  are  essential  to  life:   ▪   Fats   ▪   Carbohydrates   ▪   Proteins   ▪   Nucleic  Acids   ◦   Each  of  the  molecules  is  made  up  of  varying  combinations  of  carbon,  hydrogen,   oxygen,  nitrogen,  phosphorous,  and  sulfur    


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